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Chapter 1



HEAR YOU not the rushing sound of the coming tempest? Do you not behold the
clouds open, and destruction lurid and dire pour down on the blasted earth?
See you not the thunderbolt fall, and are deafened by the shout of heaven
that follows its descent? Feel you not the earth quake and open with
agonizing groans, while the air is pregnant with shrieks and wailings,--
all announcing the last days of man? No! none of these things accompanied
our fall! The balmy air of spring, breathed from nature's ambrosial home,
invested the lovely earth, which wakened as a young mother about to lead
forth in pride her beauteous offspring to meet their sire who had been long
absent. The buds decked the trees, the flowers adorned the land: the dark
branches, swollen with seasonable juices, expanded into leaves, and the
variegated foliage of spring, bending and singing in the breeze, rejoiced
in the genial warmth of the unclouded empyrean: the brooks flowed
murmuring, the sea was waveless, and the promontories that over-hung it
were reflected in the placid waters; birds awoke in the woods, while
abundant food for man and beast sprung up from the dark ground. Where was
pain and evil? Not in the calm air or weltering ocean; not in the woods or
fertile fields, nor among the birds that made the woods resonant with song,
nor the animals that in the midst of plenty basked in the sunshine. Our
enemy, like the Calamity of Homer, trod our hearts, and no sound was echoed
from her steps--

With ills the land is rife, with ills the sea,
Diseases haunt our frail humanity,
Through noon, through night, on casual wing they glide,
Silent,--a voice the power all-wise denied.[1]

Once man was a favourite of the Creator, as the royal psalmist sang, "God
had made him a little lower than the angels, and had crowned him with glory
and honour. God made him to have dominion over the works of his hands, and
put all things under his feet." Once it was so; now is man lord of the
creation? Look at him--ha! I see plague! She has invested his form, is
incarnate in his flesh, has entwined herself with his being, and blinds his
heaven-seeking eyes. Lie down, O man, on the flower-strown earth; give up
all claim to your inheritance, all you can ever possess of it is the small
cell which the dead require. Plague is the companion of spring, of sunshine,
and plenty. We no longer struggle with her. We have forgotten what we did
when she was not. Of old navies used to stem the giant ocean-waves betwixt
Indus and the Pole for slight articles of luxury. Men made perilous
journies to possess themselves of earth's splendid trifles, gems and gold.
Human labour was wasted--human life set at nought. Now life is all that
we covet; that this automaton of flesh should, with joints and springs in
order, perform its functions, that this dwelling of the soul should be
capable of containing its dweller. Our minds, late spread abroad through
countless spheres and endless combinations of thought, now retrenched
themselves behind this wall of flesh, eager to preserve its well-being
only. We were surely sufficiently degraded.

At first the increase of sickness in spring brought increase of toil to
such of us, who, as yet spared to life, bestowed our time and thoughts on
our fellow creatures. We nerved ourselves to the task: "in the midst of
despair we performed the tasks of hope." We went out with the resolution of
disputing with our foe. We aided the sick, and comforted the sorrowing;
turning from the multitudinous dead to the rare survivors, with an energy
of desire that bore the resemblance of power, we bade them--live. Plague
sat paramount the while, and laughed us to scorn.

Have any of you, my readers, observed the ruins of an anthill immediately
after its destruction? At first it appears entirely deserted of its former
inhabitants; in a little time you see an ant struggling through the
upturned mould; they reappear by twos and threes, running hither and
thither in search of their lost companions. Such were we upon earth,
wondering aghast at the effects of pestilence. Our empty habitations
remained, but the dwellers were gathered to the shades of the tomb.

As the rules of order and pressure of laws were lost, some began with
hesitation and wonder to transgress the accustomed uses of society. Palaces
were deserted, and the poor man dared at length, unreproved, intrude into
the splendid apartments, whose very furniture and decorations were an
unknown world to him. It was found, that, though at first the stop put to
to all circulation of property, had reduced those before supported by the
factitious wants of society to sudden and hideous poverty, yet when the
boundaries of private possession were thrown down, the products of human
labour at present existing were more, far more, than the thinned generation
could possibly consume. To some among the poor this was matter of
exultation. We were all equal now; magnificent dwellings, luxurious
carpets, and beds of down, were afforded to all. Carriages and horses,
gardens, pictures, statues, and princely libraries, there were enough of
these even to superfluity; and there was nothing to prevent each from
assuming possession of his share. We were all equal now; but near at hand
was an equality still more levelling, a state where beauty and strength,
and wisdom, would be as vain as riches and birth. The grave yawned beneath
us all, and its prospect prevented any of us from enjoying the ease and
plenty which in so awful a manner was presented to us.

Still the bloom did not fade on the cheeks of my babes; and Clara sprung up
in years and growth, unsullied by disease. We had no reason to think the
site of Windsor Castle peculiarly healthy, for many other families had
expired beneath its roof; we lived therefore without any particular
precaution; but we lived, it seemed, in safety. If Idris became thin and
pale, it was anxiety that occasioned the change; an anxiety I could in no
way alleviate. She never complained, but sleep and appetite fled from her,
a slow fever preyed on her veins, her colour was hectic, and she often wept
in secret; gloomy prognostications, care, and agonizing dread, ate up the
principle of life within her. I could not fail to perceive this change. I
often wished that I had permitted her to take her own course, and engage
herself in such labours for the welfare of others as might have distracted
her thoughts. But it was too late now. Besides that, with the nearly
extinct race of man, all our toils grew near a conclusion, she was too
weak; consumption, if so it might be called, or rather the over active life
within her, which, as with Adrian, spent the vital oil in the early morning
hours, deprived her limbs of strength. At night, when she could leave me
unperceived, she wandered through the house, or hung over the couches of
her children; and in the day time would sink into a perturbed sleep, while
her murmurs and starts betrayed the unquiet dreams that vexed her. As this
state of wretchedness became more confirmed, and, in spite of her
endeavours at concealment more apparent, I strove, though vainly, to awaken
in her courage and hope. I could not wonder at the vehemence of her care;
her very soul was tenderness; she trusted indeed that she should not
outlive me if I became the prey of the vast calamity, and this thought
sometimes relieved her. We had for many years trod the highway of life hand
in hand, and still thus linked, we might step within the shades of death;
but her children, her lovely, playful, animated children--beings sprung
from her own dear side--portions of her own being--depositories of our
loves--even if we died, it would be comfort to know that they ran man's
accustomed course. But it would not be so; young and blooming as they were,
they would die, and from the hopes of maturity, from the proud name of
attained manhood, they were cut off for ever. Often with maternal affection
she had figured their merits and talents exerted on life's wide stage. Alas
for these latter days! The world had grown old, and all its inmates partook
of the decrepitude. Why talk of infancy, manhood, and old age? We all stood
equal sharers of the last throes of time-worn nature. Arrived at the same
point of the world's age--there was no difference in us; the name of
parent and child had lost their meaning; young boys and girls were level
now with men. This was all true; but it was not less agonizing to take the
admonition home.

Where could we turn, and not find a desolation pregnant with the dire
lesson of example? The fields had been left uncultivated, weeds and gaudy
flowers sprung up,--or where a few wheat-fields shewed signs of the
living hopes of the husbandman, the work had been left halfway, the
ploughman had died beside the plough; the horses had deserted the furrow,
and no seedsman had approached the dead; the cattle unattended wandered
over the fields and through the lanes; the tame inhabitants of the poultry
yard, baulked of their daily food, had become wild--young lambs were
dropt in flower-gardens, and the cow stalled in the hall of pleasure.
Sickly and few, the country people neither went out to sow nor reap; but
sauntered about the meadows, or lay under the hedges, when the inclement
sky did not drive them to take shelter under the nearest roof. Many of
those who remained, secluded themselves; some had laid up stores which
should prevent the necessity of leaving their homes;--some deserted wife
and child, and imagined that they secured their safety in utter solitude.
Such had been Ryland's plan, and he was discovered dead and half-devoured
by insects, in a house many miles from any other, with piles of food laid
up in useless superfluity. Others made long journies to unite themselves to
those they loved, and arrived to find them dead.

London did not contain above a thousand inhabitants; and this number was
continually diminishing. Most of them were country people, come up for the
sake of change; the Londoners had sought the country. The busy eastern part
of the town was silent, or at most you saw only where, half from cupidity,
half from curiosity, the warehouses had been more ransacked than pillaged:
bales of rich India goods, shawls of price, jewels, and spices, unpacked,
strewed the floors. In some places the possessor had to the last kept watch
on his store, and died before the barred gates. The massy portals of the
churches swung creaking on their hinges; and some few lay dead on the
pavement. The wretched female, loveless victim of vulgar brutality, had
wandered to the toilet of high-born beauty, and, arraying herself in the
garb of splendour, had died before the mirror which reflected to herself
alone her altered appearance. Women whose delicate feet had seldom touched
the earth in their luxury, had fled in fright and horror from their homes,
till, losing themselves in the squalid streets of the metropolis, they had
died on the threshold of poverty. The heart sickened at the variety of
misery presented; and, when I saw a specimen of this gloomy change, my soul
ached with the fear of what might befall my beloved Idris and my babes.
Were they, surviving Adrian and myself, to find themselves protectorless in
the world? As yet the mind alone had suffered--could I for ever put off
the time, when the delicate frame and shrinking nerves of my child of
prosperity, the nursling of rank and wealth, who was my companion, should
be invaded by famine, hardship, and disease? Better die at once--better
plunge a poinard in her bosom, still untouched by drear adversity, and then
again sheathe it in my own! But, no; in times of misery we must fight
against our destinies, and strive not to be overcome by them. I would not
yield, but to the last gasp resolutely defended my dear ones against sorrow
and pain; and if I were vanquished at last, it should not be ingloriously.
I stood in the gap, resisting the enemy--the impalpable, invisible foe,
who had so long besieged us--as yet he had made no breach: it must be my
care that he should not, secretly undermining, burst up within the very
threshold of the temple of love, at whose altar I daily sacrificed. The
hunger of Death was now stung more sharply by the diminution of his food:
or was it that before, the survivors being many, the dead were less eagerly
counted? Now each life was a gem, each human breathing form of far, O! far
more worth than subtlest imagery of sculptured stone; and the daily, nay,
hourly decrease visible in our numbers, visited the heart with sickening
misery. This summer extinguished our hopes, the vessel of society was
wrecked, and the shattered raft, which carried the few survivors over the
sea of misery, was riven and tempest tost. Man existed by twos and threes;
man, the individual who might sleep, and wake, and perform the animal
functions; but man, in himself weak, yet more powerful in congregated
numbers than wind or ocean; man, the queller of the elements, the lord of
created nature, the peer of demi-gods, existed no longer.

Farewell to the patriotic scene, to the love of liberty and well earned
meed of virtuous aspiration!--farewell to crowded senate, vocal with the
councils of the wise, whose laws were keener than the sword blade tempered
at Damascus!--farewell to kingly pomp and warlike pageantry; the crowns
are in the dust, and the wearers are in their graves!--farewell to the
desire of rule, and the hope of victory; to high vaulting ambition, to the
appetite for praise, and the craving for the suffrage of their fellows! The
nations are no longer! No senate sits in council for the dead; no scion of
a time honoured dynasty pants to rule over the inhabitants of a charnel
house; the general's hand is cold, and the soldier has his untimely grave
dug in his native fields, unhonoured, though in youth. The market-place is
empty, the candidate for popular favour finds none whom he can represent.
To chambers of painted state farewell!--To midnight revelry, and the
panting emulation of beauty, to costly dress and birth-day shew, to title
and the gilded coronet, farewell!

Farewell to the giant powers of man,--to knowledge that could pilot the
deep-drawing bark through the opposing waters of shoreless ocean,--to
science that directed the silken balloon through the pathless air,--to
the power that could put a barrier to mighty waters, and set in motion
wheels, and beams, and vast machinery, that could divide rocks of granite
or marble, and make the mountains plain!

Farewell to the arts,--to eloquence, which is to the human mind as the
winds to the sea, stirring, and then allaying it;--farewell to poetry and
deep philosophy, for man's imagination is cold, and his enquiring mind can
no longer expatiate on the wonders of life, for "there is no work, nor
device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom in the grave, whither thou goest!"--to
the graceful building, which in its perfect proportion transcended the rude
forms of nature, the fretted gothic and massy saracenic pile, to the
stupendous arch and glorious dome, the fluted column with its capital,
Corinthian, Ionic, or Doric, the peristyle and fair entablature, whose
harmony of form is to the eye as musical concord to the ear!--farewell to
sculpture, where the pure marble mocks human flesh, and in the plastic
expression of the culled excellencies of the human shape, shines forth the
god!--farewell to painting, the high wrought sentiment and deep knowledge
of the artists's mind in pictured canvas--to paradisaical scenes, where
trees are ever vernal, and the ambrosial air rests in perpetual glow:--to
the stamped form of tempest, and wildest uproar of universal nature encaged
in the narrow frame, O farewell! Farewell to music, and the sound of song;
to the marriage of instruments, where the concord of soft and harsh unites
in sweet harmony, and gives wings to the panting listeners, whereby to
climb heaven, and learn the hidden pleasures of the eternals!--Farewell
to the well-trod stage; a truer tragedy is enacted on the world's ample
scene, that puts to shame mimic grief: to high-bred comedy, and the low
buffoon, farewell!--Man may laugh no more. Alas! to enumerate the
adornments of humanity, shews, by what we have lost, how supremely great
man was. It is all over now. He is solitary; like our first parents
expelled from Paradise, he looks back towards the scene he has quitted. The
high walls of the tomb, and the flaming sword of plague, lie between it and
him. Like to our first parents, the whole earth is before him, a wide
desart. Unsupported and weak, let him wander through fields where the
unreaped corn stands in barren plenty, through copses planted by his
fathers, through towns built for his use. Posterity is no more; fame, and
ambition, and love, are words void of meaning; even as the cattle that
grazes in the field, do thou, O deserted one, lie down at evening-tide,
unknowing of the past, careless of the future, for from such fond ignorance
alone canst thou hope for ease!

Joy paints with its own colours every act and thought. The happy do not
feel poverty--for delight is as a gold-tissued robe, and crowns them with
priceless gems. Enjoyment plays the cook to their homely fare, and mingles
intoxication with their simple drink. Joy strews the hard couch with roses,
and makes labour ease.

Sorrow doubles the burthen to the bent-down back; plants thorns in the
unyielding pillow; mingles gall with water; adds saltness to their bitter
bread; cloathing them in rags, and strewing ashes on their bare heads. To
our irremediable distress every small and pelting inconvenience came with
added force; we had strung our frames to endure the Atlean weight thrown on
us; we sank beneath the added feather chance threw on us, "the grasshopper
was a burthen." Many of the survivors had been bred in luxury--their
servants were gone, their powers of command vanished like unreal shadows:
the poor even suffered various privations; and the idea of another winter
like the last, brought affright to our minds. Was it not enough that we
must die, but toil must be added?--must we prepare our funeral repast
with labour, and with unseemly drudgery heap fuel on our deserted hearths
--must we with servile hands fabricate the garments, soon to be our

Not so! We are presently to die, let us then enjoy to its full relish the
remnant of our lives. Sordid care, avaunt! menial labours, and pains,
slight in themselves, but too gigantic for our exhausted strength, shall
make no part of our ephemeral existences. In the beginning of time, when,
as now, man lived by families, and not by tribes or nations, they were
placed in a genial clime, where earth fed them untilled, and the balmy air
enwrapt their reposing limbs with warmth more pleasant than beds of down.
The south is the native place of the human race; the land of fruits, more
grateful to man than the hard-earned Ceres of the north,--of trees, whose
boughs are as a palace-roof, of couches of roses, and of the
thirst-appeasing grape. We need not there fear cold and hunger.

Look at England! the grass shoots up high in the meadows; but they are dank
and cold, unfit bed for us. Corn we have none, and the crude fruits cannot
support us. We must seek firing in the bowels of the earth, or the unkind
atmosphere will fill us with rheums and aches. The labour of hundreds of
thousands alone could make this inclement nook fit habitation for one man.
To the south then, to the sun!--where nature is kind, where Jove has
showered forth the contents of Amalthea's horn, and earth is garden.

England, late birth-place of excellence and school of the wise, thy
children are gone, thy glory faded! Thou, England, wert the triumph of man!
Small favour was shewn thee by thy Creator, thou Isle of the North; a
ragged canvas naturally, painted by man with alien colours; but the hues he
gave are faded, never more to be renewed. So we must leave thee, thou
marvel of the world; we must bid farewell to thy clouds, and cold, and
scarcity for ever! Thy manly hearts are still; thy tale of power and
liberty at its close! Bereft of man, O little isle! the ocean waves will
buffet thee, and the raven flap his wings over thee; thy soil will be
birth-place of weeds, thy sky will canopy barrenness. It was not for the
rose of Persia thou wert famous, nor the banana of the east; not for the
spicy gales of India, nor the sugar groves of America; not for thy vines
nor thy double harvests, nor for thy vernal airs, nor solstitial sun--but
for thy children, their unwearied industry and lofty aspiration. They are
gone, and thou goest with them the oft trodden path that leads to oblivion,

Farewell, sad Isle, farewell, thy fatal glory
Is summed, cast up, and cancelled in this story.[2]

[1] Elton's translation of Hesiod.
[2] Cleveland's Poems.

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