The Tragedy of King Lear (a Later Tragedy). First written in the year 1606, first performed in 1608.
In Britain, King Lear, in old age, chooses to retire and divide up Britain between his three daughters. However, he declares that they must first be wed before being given the land. He asks his daughters the extent of their love for him. The two oldest, Goneril and Regan, both flatter him with praise and are rewarded generously with land and marriage to the Duke of Albany and the Duke of Cornwall, respectively. Lear's youngest and most beloved daughter, Cordelia, refuses to flatter her father, going only so far as to say that she loves him as much as a daughter should. Lear, unjustly enraged, gives her no land. The Earl of Kent tries to convince Lear to reconsider, but Lear refuses then banishes Kent for acting traitorously by supporting Cordelia. Gloucester then brings the King of France and the Duke of Burgundy in and Lear offers Cordelia to Burgundy, though without a dowry of land, contrary to a previous agreement. Burgundy declines, but the French King, impressed by Cordelia's steadfastness, takes her as Queen of France. Next, Lear passes all powers and governance of Britain down to Albany and Cornwall.
Edmund, bastard son of Gloucester, vows to himself to reclaim land his father has given to his "legitimate" son Edgar. Edmund does this by showing his father a letter he (Edmund) forged, which makes it seem that Edgar wants to take over his father's lands and revenues jointly with Edmund. Gloucester is enraged, but Edmund calms him. Later, Edmund warns Edward that he is in trouble with his father, pretending to help him.
Goneril instructs her steward, Oswald, to act coldly to King Lear and his knights, in efforts to chide him since he continues to grow more unruly. Kent arrives, disguised as a servant, and offers his services to Lear, who accepts. However, as a result of the servants' lack of respect for Lear, his own fool's derisions of him, and Goneril's ill respect toward him, Lear storms out of Goneril's home, never to look on her again. Lear goes next to Regan's house. While leaving, the fool again criticizes Lear for giving his lands to his daughters. Lear fears he (himself) is becoming insane.
At Gloucester's castle, Edmund convinces Edgar to flee, then wounds himself to make it look like Edgar attacked him. Gloucester, thankful for Edmund's support of him, vows to capture Edgar and reward Edmund. Regan and Cornwall arrive to discuss with Albany their ensuing war against Lear. Kent arrives at Gloucester's with a message from Lear and meets Oswald (whom Kent dislikes and mistrusts) with a message from Goneril. Kent attacks Oswald, but Cornwall and Regan break up the fight, afterwhich Kent is put in the stocks for 24 hours. Edgar, still running, tells himself he must disguise himself as a beggar. King Lear arrives, finding Kent in the stocks. At first, Regan and Cornwall refuse to see Lear, further enraging him, but then they allow him to enter. Oswald and Goneril arrive, and Lear becomes further enraged. After Regan and Goneril chide Lear to the brink, he leaves Gloucester's castle, entering a storm. The daughters and Cornwall are glad he leaves, though Gloucester is privately concerned for his health.
In the storm, Kent sends a man to Dover to get Cordelia and her French forces to rescue Lear and help him fight Albany and Cornwall. Lear stands in the storm swearing at it and his daughters, but Kent convinces him to hide in a cave. Gloucester tells Edmund of the French forces and departs for Lear, but Edmund plans to betray his father and inform Cornwall of the proceedings. Kent finds Lear, nearly delirious, in the storm, and tries to take him into the cave. Just then, Edgar emerges from the cave, pretending to be a madman. Lear likes him and refuses to go into the cave. Gloucester arrives (not recognizing Edgar), and convinces them all to go to a farmhouse of his. Edmund, as promised, informs Cornwall of Gloucester's dealings with the French army. Cornwall vows to arrest Gloucester and name Edmund the new Duke of Gloucester.
At the farmhouse, Lear, growing more insane, pretends his two eldest daughters are on trial for betraying him. Edgar laments that the King's predicament makes it difficult to keep up his (Edgar's) charade, out of sympathy for the King's madness. Gloucester returns and convinces Lear, Kent, and the fool to flee because Cornwall plans to kill him. Cornwall captures Gloucester and with Regan cheering him on, plucks out Gloucester's eyeballs with his bare fingers. During the torture, Gloucester's servant rescues his master from Cornwall and they flee to Dover to meet the French. On the way there, Gloucester and the servant meet Edgar (still a madman, named Poor Tom), who leads his father (Gloucester) the rest of the way.
At Albany's palace, Goneril promises her love to Edmund, since her husband (Albany) refuses to fight the French. Albany believes that the daughters mistreated their father (Lear). A messenger brings news that Cornwall is dead, from a fatal jab he received when a servant attacked him while he was plucking out Gloucester's eyeballs. Albany, feeling sorry for Gloucester and learning of Edmund's treachery with his wife, vows revenge.
At Dover, Cordelia sends a sentry out to find her estranged father. Regan instructs Oswald (Goneril's servant) to tell Edmund that she (Regan wants to marry him, since Cornwall is dead. Edgar pretends to let Gloucester jump off a cliff (Gloucester believes it truly happened), then Edgar pretends to be a different man and continues to help his father. Lear, fully mad now, approaches and speaks to them. Cordelia's men arrive and take Lear to her. Oswald comes across Edgar and Gloucester, threatening to kill them. Edgar, though, kills Oswald, and discovers by letter that Goneril plant to murder Albany and marry Edmund. At Cordelia's camp, King Lear awakes, more sane than before, and recognizes Cordelia.
At her camp, Goneril, while arguing with Albany, states to herself that she would rather lose the battle than let Regan marry Edmund. Edgar, disguised, brings warning of ill plots (by Goneril) to Albany. Lear and Cordelia are captured in battle by Edmund. Edmund sends them to jail and instructs a Captain to kill them. Edgar arrives and fights and wounds Edmund, who admits his treacheries to all. Goneril mortally poisons Regan, then stabs herself. Edmund reveals that he and Regan ordered the Captain to hang Cordelia and kill Lear. Lear then emerges with dead Cordelia, and tells all he killed the Captain that hung her. Edmund dies and King Lear, in grief over Cordelia, dies.
A prideful king. 3 daughters, 2 bad, 1 good. READ!--Submitted by BamBam.
King Lear is a legend.--Submitted by Anonymous.
Hello everyone, Sorry if this is a novice question, but I was watching Lear today and I just can't pin down why the heck he gave up his kingdom in the first place. We know he must not have been a "philosopher king" due to his actions after giving up his crown, in the Marcus Aurelius sense of a King at least. Could it be as simple that he just wanted to retire so he could fart around with his friends? I wouldn't think a king like that would have a grand kingdom to give away in the first place. If anyone can give me some insight it would be greatly appreciated. Thanks. Keif
Hey guys, Can someone help me out. What are some morals that are broken throughout King Lear? Can you please give me a few for The Love Test so i can get the idea. And if you may list some language techniques used i would be forever grateful. Thank You :lol:
Hello everyone! I'm actually preparing an entrance exam and we have King Lear in the syllabus. I'd like someone to shine some light on me as I have different themes to write about. The first one is "Serving and deserving in King Lear" which I 'm not quite sure that I fully understand the word "deserving ",although I looked it up in a dictionary. It's quite tough on me and I'm a bit lost. Thank -you for your help.
I am struggling with an english assignment at the moment regarding this play and was wondering what a good gap or silence would be so that i could insert a soliloquiy into the play. Any ideas would be gratefully accepted.
I have this thematic analysis paper due and i wanted to talk about the relationships in King Lear and how they affect the power shifts or who is in control. i really need help maybe someone could send me links to where i could find information on that??? please
Why is Edmunds silence significant in the opening scenes of the play?
Does Shakespeare leave us with any positive messages or affirmations, or merely with a sense of the ultimate meaninglessness and absurdity of human existence?
It's for an essay, and I want the topic with the most amount of examples found in this play (strongest presence throughout) since my theisis I have to come up with has to have many parts. I was thinking loyalty...like Edgar disguising himself, Cornwall's servant, Kent (not sure how).....who else? Authority is most likely out the window for me. ---------------- By the way, I just found a quote from the Bible and wondered if it would be relevant to this play since it was directed to a Christian audience: Matthew 6:28.
OK, so for a part of my thesis on Klng Iear, I said that cIothing/disguisess refIects a person's chagne in ldentity (like the perception of themselves, etc). For the first example I have Lear who's cIothes in the storm weared out, and this symbolized him going from pride to humbleness. For my quote, I was thinking of doing part of the scene of him asking the fooI to go inside the cabin first. The second example, I have GIoucester, who by Egdar's disguise as a beggar, went from being naive (since he felt that the gods had hated him) to where he felt that he was somebody and favoured among the gods. I was thinking of using the quote from when after he fell from the cliffs. Then I have Edmund who went from evil --> caring by Edgar's disguise as a knight, and I'll just use the quote that demonstrates this. Do these ideas sound good, any suggestions for improvements, etc? Thanks in advanced!! Bonus (since I'm poor at finding the right words for things): When lear saw Poor Tom, he realized that human beings are ________. I want to say weak, poor....?
Well personally I find that ultimately in King Lear(in fact all Shakespearean drama for that matter) it is the moral choices made by the characters that captivated me the most. I was especially intrigued by how he characterised Edmund and the values that this character held held which led to his actions as a villain, a brother, and a son. How do you guys feel about the importance of moral choices to this play and what it brings to the story? Is there any instance where those choices caused you to perceive human nature in a new light?
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