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Chronological Index

B.C.

1230 (Supposed) Pelasgic migration to Italy.

1184 (Supposed) Arrival of Æneas in Latium.

753 (Supposed) foundation of the city of Rome.

750 Union of the Romans and Sabines.

716 Death of Romulus.

714 Virtuous Administration of Numa.

671 Accession of Tullus Hostilius.

665 Duel between the Horatii and Curiatii--Destruction of Alba.

639 Accession of Ancus Martius.

616 {---- ---- Tarquinius Priscus. {The Augurs acquire importance in the state.

578 {Death of Tarquinius Priscus. {Accession of Servius Tullius. {The establishment of the Centuries.

534 {Murder of Servius Tullius. {Accession of Tarquinius Superbus. {Gabii taken by stratagem.

509 {Expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus. {Establishment of Consuls.

508 {Conspiracy for the restoration of the Tarquinii. {Death of Brutus.

507 War with Porsenna.

498 Lartius the first Dictator created.

493 {The Roman populace retire to Mons Sacer. {Tribunes of the people appointed.

487 {Exile of Coriolanus. {Rome besieged by Coriolanus. {His retreat and death.

484 Condemnation and death of Cassius.

459 First Dictatorship of Cincinnatus.

457 Second ditto.

454 The Romans send to Athens for Solon's laws.

451 The laws of the Twelve Tables--The Decemviri.

449 The expulsion of the Decemviri.

443 Military Tribunes chosen instead of Consuls.

442 The Censorship instituted.

439 Mælius murdered by Ahala.

406 The siege of Veii begun.

396 Veii taken by Camillus.

391 The Gauls invade Italy.

390 {The battle of Allia. Rome sacked by the Gauls. {The Gauls defeated by Camillus.

383 Manlius put to death on a charge of treason.

361 Curtius devotes himself in the Forum.

342 Beginning of the Samnite war.

339 {Manlius puts his son to death for disobedience. {Decius devotes himself for his country.

320 A Roman army forced to surrender to the Samnites in the Caudine Forks.

280 Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, invades Italy.

272 ---- finally defeated by Curius Dentatus.

270 Tarentum surrendered to the Romans.

264 Commencement of the first Punic war.

260 The Carthaginian fleet defeated by Duilius.

256 Regulus defeated by Xantippus.

252 Regulus sent to negociate peace. His death.

241 End of the first Punic war.

234 {The temple of Janus shut, and Rome at peace, for the first time since the death of Numa. {Literature cultivated at Rome.

229 War with the Illyrians.

225 {The Gauls invade Italy a second time. {---- ---- are defeated by Marcellus, who gains the spolia opima.

218 {The second Punic war begins. {Hanniball invades Italy. {Battle of the Ticenus. { ---- of the Trebia.

217 ---- of the lake Thrasymene.

216 ---- of Cannæ.

214 The Romans begin an auxiliary war against Philip of Macedon.

212 Syracuse taken by Marcellus.

207 Asdrubal defeated and slain.

202 Battle of Zama and end of the second Punic war.

197 Philip conquered by the Romans.

192 The Romans wage war against Antiochus.

189 Death of Hannibal.

171 Commencement of the second Macedonian war.

168 Macedon became a Roman province.

149 The third Punic war begins.

147 Carthage destroyed by Scipio, and Corinth by Munimius.

132 Sedition of Trius Gracchus.

126 Revolt of the slaves in Sicily.

122 Seditions of Caius Gracchus.

121 Murder of Caius Gracchus. Persecution of the popular party.

111 The Jugurthine war begins, and lasts five years.

91 The social war begins, and lasts three years.

89 The Mithridatic war begins, and lasts twenty-six years.

88 The civil war between Marius and Sylla.

86 {Cruelties of Marius. {Death of Marius.

82 Sylla created dictator.

78 Death of Sylla.

73 The insurrection of the slaves under Spartacus _note_.

66 Mithridates conquered by Pompey.

63 Catiline's conspiracy detected.

60 The first Triumvirate. Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus.

55 Cæsar invades Britain.

53 Crassus slain in Parthia.

50 Civil war between Cæsar and Pompey.

48 {The battle of Pharsalia. {Death of Pompey.

47 Alexandria taken by Cæsar.

46 {The war in Africa. {Death of Cato.

45 {The war in Spain. {The battle of Munda.

44 Cæsar murdered in the senate house.

43 {Formation of the second Triumvirate--Antony. Octavius (Augustus) and Lepidus. {The Proscription. The murder of Cicero.

42 The battle of Philippi.

32 Octavius (Augustus) and Antony prepare for war.

31 The battle of Actium.

30 {The death of Antony. {Alexandria surrendered. {Death of Cleopatra.

27 The title of Augustus given to Octavius.

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A.D.

4 Birth of JESUS CHRIST (four years before the vulgar era).

14 Death of Augustus.

19 Death of Germanicus by poison.

26 The retreat of Trius to Capreæ.

31 Disgrace and downfall of Sejanus.

33 The Crucifixion.

37 The Accession of Caligula.

41 Caligula murdered by Cherea.

43 Claudius invades Britain.

51 Caractacus carried captive to Rome.

54 Nero succeeds Claudius.

59 Nero murders his mother.

64 First general persecution of the Christians.

65 Seneca, Lucan, and others, executed for conspiracy.

68 Suicide of Nero. Accession of Galba.

69 {Death of Galba. {Defeat and death of Otho. {Defeat and death of Vitellius. Accession of Vespasian.

70 Siege and capture of Jerusalem.

79 {Death of Vespasian. Accession of Titus. {Eruption of Vesuvius: destruction of Herculaneum.

81 Death of Titus. Accession of Domitian.

88 The Dacian war.

96 {Assassination of Domitian. {Accession of Nerva.

98 Death of Nerva. Accession of Trajan.

107 Third general persecution of the Christians.

117 Death of Trajan. Accession of Adrian.

121 A wall to restrain the incursions of the Picts and Scots erected in Britain by Adrian.

131 Great rebellion of the Jews.

136 Death of Adrian. Accession of Antoninus Pius.

161 Accession of Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus.

162 The Parthian war.

169 The war with the Marcomanni.

180 {Death of Marcus Aurelius. {Accession of Commodus.

192 {Commodus murdered by Marcia and Lætus. {Assassination of Pertinax.

200 {Roman empire offered for sale. {Severus subdues the Parthians.

211 Death of Severus at York. Accession of Caracalla and Geta.

217 Assassination of Caracalla.

218 Accession of Heliogabalus.

222 {His miserable death. {Accession of Alexander Severus.

235 Death of Alexander. Maximin elected emperor.

236 Assassination of Maximin.

238 Accession of Gordian.

244 His murder by Philip.

248 Philip killed by his soldiers: succeeded by Decius.

251 Decius slain in an ambuscade: succeeded by Gallus.

254 Death of Gallus: a disputed succession.

270 Accession of Aurelian.

275 Brief reign of Tacitus.

282 Assassination of the emperor Probus.

284 Accession of Dioclesian.

304 The reign of Constantius and Galerius.

312 Victory of Constantino over Maxentius.

319 Favour showed to the Christians.

324 Defeat of Licinius.

325 Legal establishment of Christianity.

328 The seat of government removed from Rome to Byzantium, which city from thenceforward takes the name of Constantinople, from the emperor Constantine.

337 {Death of Constantine, and division of the empire among his sons. {Destruction of the Flavian Family.

338 War between Constantius and Sapor.

340 Constantine the younger defeated and slain by his brother Constans.

350 Constans killed by Magnentius.

351 Magnentius totally defeated at the fatal battle of Mursa.

354 Gallas put to death by Constantius.

360 The civil war between Constantius and Julian prevented by the death of the former.

362 Julian's attempt to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem defeated.

363 Death of Julian in the Persian war. Brief reign of Jovian.

364 The empire divided between Valenlinian and Valens.

376 {The Goths permitted to settle in Thrace. {First appearance of the Huns in Europe.

378 The emperor Valens defeated by the Goths at Adrianople.

379 Theodosius becomes emperor of the East.

388 The usurper Maximus defeated and slain.

392 Reunion of the Eastern and Western empires, under Theodosius.

395 Death of Theodosius, and final separation of the Eastern and Western empires.

398 Revolt of Gildo in Africa.

405 Stilicho obtains two victories over the Goths.

406 The Vandals and Alans settle in Gaul.

408 Alaric, king of the Goths, besieges Rome.

410 Rome taken and plundered by the Goths.

412 Beginning of the Vandal kingdom in Spain.

415 Commencement of the kingdom of the Visigoths.

423 Death of Honorius. Accession of Valentinian.

430 The Vandals invited to Africa by count Boniface.

447 The Huns under the guidance of Attila, ravage Europe.

449 The Britons, deserted by the Romans, invite the Sarons and Angles to their assistance.

455 Rome taken and plundered by Genseric, the king of the African Vandals.

476 Augustulus, the last emperor of the West deposed, Odoacer takes the title of king of Italy.

453 Subversion of the Eastern empire.

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Oliver Goldsmith