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Chapter 12


The emigrants attempt to re-enter Florence, but are not allowed to
do so--The companies of the people restored--Restless conduct of
Corso Donati--The ruin of Corso Donati--Corso Donati accused and
condemned--Riot at the house of Corso--Death of Corso--His
character--Fruitless attempt of the Emperor Henry against the
Florentines--The emigrants are restored to the city--The citizens
place themselves under the king of Naples for five years--War with
Uguccione della Faggiuola--The Florentines routed--Florence
withdraws herself from subjection to King Robert, and expels the
Count Novello--Lando d'Agobbio--His tyranny--His departure.

The legate being returned to Rome, and hearing of the new disturbance
which had occurred, persuaded the pope that if he wished to unite the
Florentines, it would be necessary to have twelve of the first
citizens appear before him, and having thus removed the principal
causes of disunion, he might easily put a stop to it. The pontiff took
this advice, and the citizens, among whom was Corso Donati, obeyed the
summons. These having left the city, the legate told the exiles that
now, when the city was deprived of her leaders, was the time for them
to return. They, therefore, having assembled, came to Florence, and
entering by a part of the wall not yet completed, proceeded to the
piazza of St. Giovanni. It is worthy of remark, that those who, a
short time previously, when they came unarmed and begged to be
restored to their country, had fought for their return, now, when they
saw them in arms and resolved to enter by force, took arms to oppose
them (so much more was the common good esteemed than private
friendship), and being joined by the rest of the citizens, compelled
them to return to the places whence they had come. They failed in
their undertaking by having left part of their force at Lastra, and by
not having waited the arrival of Tolosetto Uberti, who had to come
from Pistoia with three hundred horse; for they thought celerity
rather than numbers would give them the victory; and it often happens,
in similar enterprises, that delay robs us of the occasion, and too
great anxiety to be forward prevents us of the power, or makes us act
before we are properly prepared.

The banished having retired, Florence again returned to her old
divisions; and in order to deprive the Cavalcanti of their authority,
the people took from them the Stinche, a castle situated in the Val di
Greve, and anciently belonging to the family. And as those who were
taken in it were the first who were put into the new prisons, the
latter were, and still continue, named after it,--the Stinche. The
leaders of the republic also re-established the companies of the
people, and gave them the ensigns that were first used by the
companies of the Arts; the heads of which were called Gonfaloniers of
the companies and colleagues of the Signory; and ordered, that when
any disturbance arose they should assist the Signory with arms, and in
peace with counsel. To the two ancient rectors they added an executor,
or sheriff, who, with the Gonfaloniers, was to aid in repressing the
insolence of the nobility.

In the meantime the pope died. Corso, with the other citizens,
returned from Rome; and all would have been well if his restless mind
had not occasioned new troubles. It was his common practice to be of a
contrary opinion to the most powerful men in the city; and whatever he
saw the people inclined to do, he exercised his utmost influence to
effect, in order to attach them to himself; so that he was a leader in
all differences, at the head of every new scheme, and whoever wished
to obtain anything extraordinary had recourse to him. This conduct
caused him to be hated by many of the highest distinction; and their
hatred increased to such a degree that the Neri faction to which he
belonged, became completely divided; for Corso, to attain his ends,
had availed himself of private force and authority, and of the enemies
of the state. But so great was the influence attached to his person,
that everyone feared him. Nevertheless, in order to strip him of the
popular favor (which by this means may easily be done), a report was
set on foot that he intended to make himself prince of the city; and
to the design his conduct gave great appearance of probability, for
his way of living quite exceeded all civil bounds; and the opinion
gained further strength, upon his taking to wife a daughter of
Uguccione della Faggiuola, head of the Ghibelline and Bianchi faction,
and one of the most powerful men in Tuscany.

When this marriage became known it gave courage to his adversaries,
and they took arms against him; for the same reason the people ceased
to defend him, and the greater part of them joined the ranks of his
enemies, the leaders of whom were Rosso della Tosa, Pazino dei Pazzi,
Geri Spini, and Berto Brunelleschi. These, with their followers, and
the greater part of the people, assembled before the palace of the
Signory, by whose command a charge was made before Piero Branca,
captain of the people, against Corso, of intending, with the aid of
Uguccione, to usurp the government. He was then summoned, and for
disobedience, declared a rebel; nor did two hours pass over between
the accusation and the sentence. The judgment being given, the
Signory, with the companies of the people under their ensigns, went in
search of him, who, although seeing himself abandoned by many of his
followers, aware of the sentence against him, the power of the
Signory, and the multitude of his enemies, remained undaunted, and
fortified his houses, in the hope of defending them till Uguccione,
for whom he had sent, should come to his Relief. His residences, and
the streets approaching them, were barricaded and taken possession of
by his partisans, who defended them so bravely that the enemy,
although in great numbers, could not force them, and the battle became
one of the hottest, with wounds and death on all sides. But the
people, finding they could not drive them from their ground, took
possession of the adjoining houses, and by unobserved passages
obtained entry. Corso, thus finding himself surrounded by his foes, no
longer retaining any hope of assistance from Uguccione, and without a
chance of victory, thought only of effecting his personal safety, and
with Gherardo Bordoni, and some of his bravest and most trusted
friends, fought a passage through the thickest of their enemies, and
effected their escape from the city by the Gate of the Cross. They
were, however, pursued by vast numbers, and Gherardo was slain upon
the bridge of Affrico by Boccaccio Cavicciulli. Corso was overtaken
and made prisoner by a party of Catalan horse, in the service of the
Signory, at Rovezzano. But when approaching Florence, that he might
avoid being seen and torn to pieces by his victorious enemies, he
allowed himself to fall from horseback, and being down, one of those
who conducted him cut his throat. The body was found by the monks of
San Salvi, and buried without any ceremony due to his rank. Such was
the end of Corso, to whom his country and the Neri faction were
indebted for much both of good and evil; and if he had possessed a
cooler spirit he would have left behind him a more happy memory.
Nevertheless, he deserves to be enumerated among the most
distinguished men our city has produced. True it is, that his restless
conduct made both his country and his party forgetful of their
obligation to him. The same cause also produced his miserable end, and
brought many troubles upon both his friends and his country.
Uguccione, coming to the assistance of his relative, learned at Remoli
that Corso had been overcome by the people, and finding that he could
not render him any assistance, in order to avoid bringing evil upon
himself without occasion, he returned home.

After the death of Corso, which occurred in the year 1308, the
disturbances were appeased, and the people lived quietly till it was
reported that the Emperor Henry was coming into Italy, and with him
all the Florentine emigrants, to whom he had promised restoration to
their country. The leaders of the government thought, that in order to
lessen the number of their enemies, it would be well to recall, of
their own will, all who had been expelled, excepting such as the law
had expressly forbidden to return. Of the number not admitted, were
the greater part of the Ghibellines, and some of those of the Bianchi
faction, among whom were Dante Alighieri, the sons of Veri de' Cerchi
and of Giano della Bella. Besides this they sent for aid to Robert,
king of Naples, and not being able to obtain it of him as friends,
they gave their city to him for five years, that he might defend them
as his own people. The emperor entered Italy by the way of Pisa, and
proceeded by the marshes to Rome, where he was crowned in the year
1312. Then, having determined to subdue the Florentines, he approached
their city by the way of Perugia and Arezzo, and halted with his army
at the monastery of San Salvi, about a mile from Florence, where he
remained fifty days without effecting anything. Despairing of success
against Florence, he returned to Pisa, where he entered into an
agreement with Frederick, king of Sicily, to undertake the conquest of
Naples, and proceeded with his people accordingly; but while filled
with the hope of victory, and carrying dismay into the heart of King
Robert, having reached Buonconvento, he died.

Shortly after this, Uguccione della Faggiuola, having by means of the
Ghibelline party become lord of Pisa and of Lucca, caused, with the
assistance of these cities, very serious annoyance to the neighbouring
places. In order to effect their relief the Florentines requested King
Robert would allow his brother Piero to take the command of their
armies. On the other hand, Uguccione continued to increase his power;
and either by force or fraud obtained possession of many castles in
the Val d'Arno and the Val di Nievole; and having besieged Monte
Cataini, the Florentines found it would be necessary to send to its
relief, that they might not see him burn and destroy their whole
territory. Having drawn together a large army, they entered the Val di
Nievole where they came up with Uguccione, and were routed after a
severe battle in which Piero the king's brother and 2,000 men were
slain; but the body of the Prince was never found. Neither was the
victory a joyful one to Uguccione; for one of his sons, and many of
the leaders of his army, fell in the strife.

The Florentines after this defeat fortified their territory, and King
Robert sent them, for commander of their forces, the Count d'Andria,
usually called Count Novello, by whose deportment, or because it is
natural to the Florentines to find every state tedious, the city,
notwithstanding the war with Uguccione, became divided into friends
and enemies of the king. Simon della Tosa, the Magalotti, and certain
others of the people who had attained greater influence in the
government than the rest, were leaders of the party against the king.
By these means messengers were sent to France, and afterward into
Germany, to solicit leaders and forces that they might drive out the
count, whom the king had appointed governor; but they failed of
obtaining any. Nevertheless they did not abandon their undertaking,
but still desirous of one whom they might worship, after an unavailing
search in France and Germany, they discovered him at Agobbio, and
having expelled the Count Novello, caused Lando d'Agobbio to be
brought into the city as Bargello sheriff), and gave him the most
unlimited power of the citizens. This man was cruel and rapacious; and
going through the country accompanied with an armed force, he put many
to death at the mere instigation of those who had endowed him with
authority. His insolence rose to such a height, that he stamped base
metal with the impression used upon the money of the state, and no one
had sufficient courage to oppose him, so powerful had he become by the
discords of Florence. Great, certainly, but unhappy city! which
neither the memory of past divisions, the fear of her enemies, nor a
king's authority, could unite for her own advantage; so that she found
herself in a state of the utmost wretchedness, harassed without by
Uguccione, and plundered within by Lando d'Agobbio.

The friends of the king and those who opposed Lando and his followers,
were either of noble families or the highest of the people, and all
Guelphs; but their adversaries being in power they could not discover
their minds without incurring the greatest danger. Being, however,
determined to deliver themselves from such disgraceful tyranny, they
secretly wrote to King Robert, requesting him to appoint for his vicar
in Florence Count Guido da Battifolle. The king complied; and the
opposite party, although the Signory were opposed to the king, on
account of the good quality of the count, did not dare to resist him.
Still his authority was not great, because the Signory and
Gonfaloniers of the companies were in favor of Lando and his party.

During these troubles, the daughter of King Albert of Bohemia passed
through Florence, in search of her husband, Charles, the son of King
Robert, and was received with the greatest respect by the friends of
the king, who complained to her of the unhappy state of the city, and
of the tyranny of Lando and his partisans; so that through her
influence and the exertions of the king's friends, the citizens were
again united, and before her departure, Lando was stripped of all
authority and send back to Agobbio, laden with blood and plunder. In
reforming the government, the sovereignty of the city was continued to
the king for another three years, and as there were then in office
seven Signors of the party of Lando, six more were appointed of the
king's friends, and some magistracies were composed of thirteen
Signors; but not long afterward the number was reduced to seven
according to ancient custom.

Niccolo Machiavelli