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The Watch-dog of Knowledge

Mordax is an admirable man, ardent in intellectual work,
public-spirited, affectionate, and able to find the right words in
conveying ingenious ideas or elevated feeling. Pity that to all these
graces he cannot add what would give them the utmost finish--the
occasional admission that he has been in the wrong, the occasional frank
welcome of a new idea as something not before present to his mind! But
no: Mordax's self-respect seems to be of that fiery quality which
demands that none but the monarchs of thought shall have an advantage
over him, and in the presence of contradiction or the threat of having
his notions corrected, he becomes astonishingly unscrupulous and cruel
for so kindly and conscientious a man.

"You are fond of attributing those fine qualities to Mordax," said
Acer, the other day, "but I have not much belief in virtues that are
always requiring to be asserted in spite of appearances against them.
True fairness and goodwill show themselves precisely where his are
conspicuously absent. I mean, in recognising claims which the rest of
the world are not likely to stand up for. It does not need much love of
truth and justice in me to say that Aldebaran is a bright star, or Isaac
Newton the greatest of discoverers; nor much kindliness in me to want my
notes to be heard above the rest in a chorus of hallelujahs to one
already crowned. It is my way to apply tests. Does the man who has the
ear of the public use his advantage tenderly towards poor fellows who
may be hindered of their due if he treats their pretensions with scorn?
That is my test of his justice and benevolence."

My answer was, that his system of moral tests might be as delusive as
what ignorant people take to be tests of intellect and learning. If the
scholar or _savant_ cannot answer their haphazard questions on the
shortest notice, their belief in his capacity is shaken. But the
better-informed have given up the Johnsonian theory of mind as a pair of
legs able to walk east or west according to choice. Intellect is no
longer taken to be a ready-made dose of ability to attain eminence (or
mediocrity) in all departments; it is even admitted that application in
one line of study or practice has often a laming effect in other
directions, and that an intellectual quality or special facility which
is a furtherance in one medium of effort is a drag in another. We have
convinced ourselves by this time that a man may be a sage in celestial
physics and a poor creature in the purchase of seed-corn, or even in
theorising about the affections; that he may be a mere fumbler in
physiology and yet show a keen insight into human motives; that he may
seem the "poor Poll" of the company in conversation and yet write with
some humorous vigour. It is not true that a man's intellectual power is
like the strength of a timber beam, to be measured by its weakest point.

Why should we any more apply that fallacious standard of what is called
consistency to a man's moral nature, and argue against the existence of
fine impulses or habits of feeling in relation to his actions
generally, because those better movements are absent in a class of cases
which act peculiarly on an irritable form of his egoism? The mistake
might be corrected by our taking notice that the ungenerous words or
acts which seem to us the most utterly incompatible with good
dispositions in the offender, are those which offend ourselves. All
other persons are able to draw a milder conclusion. Laniger, who has a
temper but no talent for repartee, having been run down in a fierce way
by Mordax, is inwardly persuaded that the highly-lauded man is a wolf at
heart: he is much tried by perceiving that his own friends seem to think
no worse of the reckless assailant than they did before; and Corvus, who
has lately been flattered by some kindness from Mordax, is unmindful
enough of Laniger's feeling to dwell on this instance of good-nature
with admiring gratitude. There is a fable that when the badger had been
stung all over by bees, a bear consoled him by a rhapsodic account of
how he himself had just breakfasted on their honey. The badger replied,
peevishly, "The stings are in my flesh, and the sweetness is on your
muzzle." The bear, it is said, was surprised at the badger's want of

But this difference of sensibility between Laniger and his friends only
mirrors in a faint way the difference between his own point of view and
that of the man who has injured him. If those neutral, perhaps even
affectionate persons, form no lively conception of what Laniger suffers,
how should Mordax have any such sympathetic imagination to check him in
what he persuades himself is a scourging administered by the qualified
man to the unqualified? Depend upon it, his conscience, though active
enough in some relations, has never given him a twinge because of his
polemical rudeness and even brutality. He would go from the room where
he has been tiring himself through the watches of the night in lifting
and turning a sick friend, and straightway write a reply or rejoinder in
which he mercilessly pilloried a Laniger who had supposed that he could
tell the world something else or more than had been sanctioned by the
eminent Mordax--and what was worse, had sometimes really done so. Does
this nullify the genuineness of motive which made him tender to his
suffering friend? Not at all. It only proves that his arrogant egoism,
set on fire, sends up smoke and flame where just before there had been
the dews of fellowship and pity. He is angry and equips himself
accordingly--with a penknife to give the offender a _comprachico_
countenance, a mirror to show him the effect, and a pair of nailed boots
to give him his dismissal. All this to teach him who the Romans really
were, and to purge Inquiry of incompetent intrusion, so rendering an
important service to mankind.

When a man is in a rage and wants to hurt another in consequence, he can
always regard himself as the civil arm of a spiritual power, and all the
more easily because there is real need to assert the righteous efficacy
of indignation. I for my part feel with the Lanigers, and should object
all the more to their or my being lacerated and dressed with salt, if
the administrator of such torture alleged as a motive his care for Truth
and posterity, and got himself pictured with a halo in consequence. In
transactions between fellow-men it is well to consider a little, in the
first place, what is fair and kind towards the person immediately
concerned, before we spit and roast him on behalf of the next century
but one. Wide-reaching motives, blessed and glorious as they are, and of
the highest sacramental virtue, have their dangers, like all else that
touches the mixed life of the earth. They are archangels with awful brow
and flaming sword, summoning and encouraging us to do the right and the
divinely heroic, and we feel a beneficent tremor in their presence; but
to learn what it is they thus summon us to do, we have to consider the
mortals we are elbowing, who are of our own stature and our own
appetites. I cannot feel sure how my voting will affect the condition of
Central Asia in the coming ages, but I have good reason to believe that
the future populations there will be none the worse off because I
abstain from conjectural vilification of my opponents during the present
parliamentary session, and I am very sure that I shall be less injurious
to my contemporaries. On the whole, and in the vast majority of
instances, the action by which we can do the best for future ages is of
the sort which has a certain beneficence and grace for contemporaries. A
sour father may reform prisons, but considered in his sourness he does
harm. The deed of Judas has been attributed to far-reaching views, and
the wish to hasten his Master's declaration of himself as the Messiah.
Perhaps--I will not maintain the contrary--Judas represented his motive
in this way, and felt justified in his traitorous kiss; but my belief
that he deserved, metaphorically speaking, to be where Dante saw him, at
the bottom of the Malebolge, would not be the less strong because he was
not convinced that his action was detestable. I refuse to accept a man
who has the stomach for such treachery, as a hero impatient for the
redemption of mankind and for the beginning of a reign when the kisses
shall be those of peace and righteousness.

All this is by the way, to show that my apology for Mordax was not
founded on his persuasion of superiority in his own motives, but on the
compatibility of unfair, equivocal, and even cruel actions with a nature
which, apart from special temptations, is kindly and generous; and also
to enforce the need of checks from a fellow-feeling with those whom our
acts immediately (not distantly) concern. Will any one be so hardy as to
maintain that an otherwise worthy man cannot be vain and arrogant? I
think most of us have some interest in arguing the contrary. And it is
of the nature of vanity and arrogance, if unchecked, to become cruel and
self-justifying. There are fierce beasts within: chain them, chain them,
and let them learn to cower before the creature with wider reason. This
is what one wishes for Mordax--that his heart and brain should restrain
the outleap of roar and talons.

As to his unwillingness to admit that an idea which he has not
discovered is novel to him, one is surprised that quick intellect and
shrewd observation do not early gather reasons for being ashamed of a
mental trick which makes one among the comic parts of that various actor
Conceited Ignorance.

I have a sort of valet and factotum, an excellent, respectable servant,
whose spelling is so unvitiated by non-phonetic superfluities that he
writes _night_ as _nit_. One day, looking over his accounts, I said to
him jocosely, "You are in the latest fashion with your spelling, Pummel:
most people spell "night" with a _gh_ between the _i_ and the _t_, but
the greatest scholars now spell it as you do." "So I suppose, sir,"
says Pummel; "I've see it with a _gh_, but I've noways give into that
myself." You would never catch Pummel in an interjection of surprise. I
have sometimes laid traps for his astonishment, but he has escaped them
all, either by a respectful neutrality, as of one who would not appear
to notice that his master had been taking too much wine, or else by that
strong persuasion of his all-knowingness which makes it simply
impossible for him to feel himself newly informed. If I tell him that
the world is spinning round and along like a top, and that he is
spinning with it, he says, "Yes, I've heard a deal of that in my time,
sir," and lifts the horizontal lines of his brow a little higher,
balancing his head from side to side as if it were too painfully full.
Whether I tell him that they cook puppies in China, that there are ducks
with fur coats in Australia, or that in some parts of the world it is
the pink of politeness to put your tongue out on introduction to a
respectable stranger, Pummel replies, "So I suppose, sir," with an air
of resignation to hearing my poor version of well-known things, such as
elders use in listening to lively boys lately presented with an
anecdote book. His utmost concession is, that what you state is what he
would have supplied if you had given him _carte blanche_ instead of your
needless instruction, and in this sense his favourite answer is, "I
should say."

"Pummel," I observed, a little irritated at not getting my coffee, "if
you were to carry your kettle and spirits of wine up a mountain of a
morning, your water would boil there sooner." "I should say, sir." "Or,
there are boiling springs in Iceland. Better go to Iceland." "That's
what I've been thinking, sir."

I have taken to asking him hard questions, and as I expected, he never
admits his own inability to answer them without representing it as
common to the human race. "What is the cause of the tides, Pummel?"

"Well, sir, nobody rightly knows. Many gives their opinion, but if I
was to give mine, it 'ud be different."

But while he is never surprised himself, he is constantly imagining
situations of surprise for others. His own consciousness is that of one
so thoroughly soaked in knowledge that further absorption is
impossible, but his neighbours appear to him to be in the state of
thirsty sponges which it is a charity to besprinkle. His great
interest in thinking of foreigners is that they must be surprised at
what they see in England, and especially at the beef. He is often
occupied with the surprise Adam must have felt at the sight of the
assembled animals--"for he was not like us, sir, used from a b'y to
Wombwell's shows." He is fond of discoursing to the lad who acts as
shoe-black and general subaltern, and I have overheard him saying to
that small upstart, with some severity, "Now don't you pretend to know,
because the more you pretend the more I see your ignirance"--a lucidity
on his part which has confirmed my impression that the thoroughly
self-satisfied person is the only one fully to appreciate the charm of
humility in others.

Your diffident self-suspecting mortal is not very angry that others
should feel more comfortable about themselves, provided they are not
otherwise offensive: he is rather like the chilly person, glad to sit
next a warmer neighbour; or the timid, glad to have a courageous
fellow-traveller. It cheers him to observe the store of small comforts
that his fellow-creatures may find in their self-complacency, just as
one is pleased to see poor old souls soothed by the tobacco and snuff
for which one has neither nose nor stomach oneself.

But your arrogant man will not tolerate a presumption which he sees to
be ill-founded. The service he regards society as most in need of is to
put down the conceit which is so particularly rife around him that he is
inclined to believe it the growing characteristic of the present age. In
the schools of Magna Graecia, or in the sixth century of our era, or
even under Kublai Khan, he finds a comparative freedom from that
presumption by which his contemporaries are stirring his able gall. The
way people will now flaunt notions which are not his without appearing
to mind that they are not his, strikes him as especially disgusting. It
might seem surprising to us that one strongly convinced of his own value
should prefer to exalt an age in which _he_ did not flourish, if it were
not for the reflection that the present age is the only one in which
anybody has appeared to undervalue him.

George Eliot