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Chapter 31

At school I knew him--a sharp-witted youth,
Grave, thoughtful, and reserved among his mates,
Turning the hours of sport and food to labour,
Starving his body to inform his mind.

The Sub-Prior, at the Borderer's request, had not failed to
return to the tower, into which he was followed by Christie of
the Clinthill, who, shutting the door of the apartment, drew near,
and began his discourse with great confidence and familiarity.

"My master," he said, "sends me with his commendations to you, Sir
Sub-Prior, above all the community of Saint Mary's, and more specially
than even to the Abbot himself; for though he be termed my lord, and
so forth, all the world knows that you are the tongue of the trump."

"If you have aught to say to me concerning the community," said the
Sub-Prior, "it were well you proceeded in it without farther delay.
Time presses, and the fate of young Glendinnning dwells on my mind."

"I will be caution for him, body for body," said Christie. "I do
protest to you, as sure as I am a living man, so surely is he one."

"Should I not tell his unhappy mother the joyful tidings?" said Father
Eustace,--"and yet better wait till they return from searching the
grave. Well, Sir Jackman, your message to me from your master?"

"My lord and master," said Christie, "hath good reason to believe
that, from the information of certain back friends, whom he will
reward at more leisure, your reverend community hath been led to deem
him ill attached to Holy Church, allied with heretics and those who
favour heresy, and a hungerer after the spoils of your Abbey."

"Be brief, good henchman," said the Sub-Prior, "for the devil is ever
most to be feared when he preacheth."

"Briefly, then--my master desires your friendship; and to excuse
himself from the maligner's calumnies, he sends to your Abbot that
Henry Warden, whose sermons have turned the world upside down, to be
dealt with as Holy Church directs, and as the Abbot's pleasure may

The Sub-Prior's eyes sparkled at the intelligence; for it had been
accounted a matter of great importance that this man should be
arrested, possessed, as he was known to be, of so much zeal and
popularity, that scarcely the preaching of Knox himself had been more
awakening to the people, and more formidable to the Church of Rome.

In fact, that ancient system, which so well accommodated its doctrines
to the wants and wishes of a barbarous age, had, since the art of
printing, and the gradual diffusion of knowledge, lain floating like
some huge Leviathan, into which ten thousand reforming fishers were
darting their harpoons. The Roman Church of Scotland, in particular,
was at her last gasp, actually blowing blood and water, yet still with
unremitted, though animal exertions, maintaining the conflict with the
assailants, who on every side were plunging their weapons into her
bulky body. In many large towns, the monasteries had been suppressed
by the fury of the populace; in other places, their possessions had
been usurped by the power of the reformed nobles; but still the
hierarchy made a part of the common law of the realm, and might claim
both its property and its privileges wherever it had the means of
asserting them. The community of Saint Mary's of Kennaquhair was
considered as being particularly in this situation. They had retained,
undiminished, their territorial power and influence; and the great
barons in the neighbourhood, partly from their attachment to the party
in the state who still upheld the old system of religion, partly
because each grudged the share of the prey which the others must
necessarily claim, had as yet abstained from despoiling the Halidome.
The Community was also understood to be protected by the powerful
Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, whose zealous attachment to
the Catholic faith caused at a later period the great rebellion of the
tenth of Elizabeth.

Thus happily placed, it was supposed by the friends of the decaying
cause of the Roman Catholic faith, that some determined example of
courage and resolution, exercised where the franchises of the church
were yet entire, and her jurisdiction undisputed, might awe the
progress of the new opinions into activity; and, protected by the laws
which still existed, and by the favour of the sovereign, might be the
means of securing the territory which Rome yet preserved in Scotland,
and perhaps of recovering that which she had lost.

The matter had been considered more than once by the northern
Catholics of Scotland, and they had held communication with those of
the south. Father Eustace, devoted by his public and private vows,
had caught the flame, and had eagerly advised that they should execute
the doom of heresy on the first reformed preacher, or, according to
his sense, on the first heretic of eminence, who should venture within
the precincts of the Halidome. A heart, naturally kind and noble, was,
in this instance, as it has been in many more, deceived by its own
generosity. Father Eustace would have been a bad administrator of the
inquisitorial power of Spain, where that power was omnipotent, and
where judgment was exercised without danger to those who inflicted it.
In such a situation his rigour might have relented in favour of the
criminal, whom it was at his pleasure to crush or to place at freedom.
But in Scotland, during this crisis, the case was entirely different.
The question was, whether one of the spirituality dared, at the hazard
of his own life, to step forward to assert and exercise the rights of
the church. Was there any who would venture to wield the thunder in
her cause, or must it remain like that in the hand of a painted
Jupiter, the object of derision instead of terror? The crisis was
calculated to awake the soul of Eustace; for it comprised the
question, whether he dared, at all hazards to himself, to execute with
stoical severity a measure which, according to the general opinion,
was to be advantageous to the church, and, according to ancient law,
and to his firm belief, was not only justifiable but meritorious.

While such resolutions were agitated amongst the Catholics, chance
placed a victim within their grasp. Henry Warden had, with the
animation proper to the enthusiastic reformers of the age,
transgressed, in the vehemence of his zeal, the bounds of the
discretional liberty allowed to his sect so far, that it was thought
the Queen's personal dignity was concerned in bringing him to justice.
He fled from Edinburgh, with recommendations, however, from Lord James
Stewart, afterwards the celebrated Earl of Murray, to some of the
Border chieftains of inferior rank, who were privately conjured to
procure him safe passage into England. One of the principal persons to
whom such recommendation was addressed, was Julian Avenel; for as yet,
and for a considerable time afterwards, the correspondence and
interest of Lord James lay rather with the subordinate leaders than
with the chiefs of great power, and men of distinguished influence
upon the Border. Julian Avenel had intrigued without scruple with both
parties--yet bad as he was, he certainly would not have practised
aught against the guest whom Lord James had recommended to his
hospitality, had it not been for what he termed the preacher's
officious inter-meddling in his family affairs. But when he had
determined to make Warden rue the lecture he had read him, and the
scene of public scandal which he had caused in his hall, Julian
resolved, with the constitutional shrewdness of his disposition, to
combine his vengeance with his interest. And therefore, instead of
doing violence on the person of Henry Warden within his own castle, he
determined to deliver him up to the Community of Saint Mary's, and at
once make them the instruments of his own revenge, and found a claim
of personal recompense, either in money, or in a grant of Abbey lands
at a low quit-rent, which last began now to be the established form in
which the temporal nobles plundered the spirituality.

The Sub-Prior, therefore, of Saint Mary's, unexpectedly saw the
steadfast, active, and inflexible enemy of the church delivered into
his hand, and felt himself called upon to make good his promises to
the friends of the Catholic faith, by quenching heresy in the blood of
one of its most zealous professors.

To the honour more of Father Eustace's heart than of his consistency,
the communication that Henry Warden was placed within his power,
struck him with more sorrow than triumph; but his next feelings were
those of exultation. "It is sad," he said to himself, "to cause human
suffering; it is awful to cause human blood to be spilled; but the
judge to whom the sword of Saint Paul, as well as the keys of Saint
Peter, are confided, must not flinch from his task. Our weapon returns
into our own bosom, if not wielded with a steady and unrelenting hand
against the irreconcilable enemies of the Holy Church. _Pereat
iste!_ It is the doom he has incurred, and were all the heretics in
Scotland armed and at his back, they should not prevent its being
pronounced, and, if possible, enforced.--Bring the heretic before me,"
he said, issuing his commands aloud, and in a tone of authority.

Henry Warden was led in, his hands still bound, but his feet at liberty.

"Clear the apartment," said the Sub-Prior, "of all but the necessary
guard on the prisoner."

All retired except Christie of the Clinthill, who, having dismissed
the inferior troopers whom he commanded, unsheathed his sword, and
placed himself beside the door, as if taking upon him the character of

The judge and the accused met face to face, and in that of both was
enthroned the noble confidence of rectitude. The monk was about, at
the utmost risk to himself and his community, to exercise what in his
ignorance he conceived to be his duty. The preacher, actuated by a
better-informed, yet not a more ardent zeal, was prompt to submit to
execution for God's sake, and to seal, were it necessary, his mission
with his blood. Placed at such a distance of time as better enables us
to appreciate the tendency of the principles on which they severally
acted, we cannot doubt to which the palm ought to be awarded. But the
zeal of Father Eustace was as free from passion and personal views as
if it had been exerted in a better cause.

They approached each other, armed each and prepared for intellectual
conflict, and each intently regarding his opponent, as if either hoped
to spy out some defect, some chasm in the armour of his antagonist.--
As they gazed on each other, old recollections began to awake in
either bosom, at the sight of features long unseen and much altered,
but not forgotten. The brow of the Sub-Prior dismissed by degrees its
frown of command, the look of calm yet stern defiance gradually
vanished from that of Warden, and both lost for an instant that of
gloomy solemnity. They had been ancient and intimate friends in youth
at a foreign university, but had been long separated from each other;
and the change of name, which the preacher had adopted from motives of
safety, and the monk from the common custom of the convent, had
prevented the possibility of their hitherto recognizing each other in
the opposite parts which they had been playing in the great polemical
and political drama. But now the Sub-Prior exclaimed, "Henry
Wellwood!" and the preacher replied, "William Allan!"--and, stirred by
the old familiar names, and never-to-be-forgotten recollections of
college studies and college intimacy, their hands were for a moment
locked in each other.

"Remove his bonds," said the Sub-Prior, and assisted Christie in
performing that office with his own hands, although the prisoner
scarcely would consent to be unbound, repeating with emphasis, that he
rejoiced in the cause for which he suffered shame. When his hands were
at liberty, however, he showed his sense of the kindness by again
exchanging a grasp and a look of affection with the Sub-Prior.

The salute was frank and generous on either side, yet it was but the
friendly recognition and greeting which are wont to take place betwixt
adverse champions, who do nothing in hate but all in honour. As each
felt the pressure of the situation in which they stood, he quitted the
grasp of the other's hand, and fell back, confronting each other with
looks more calm and sorrowful than expressive of any other passion.
The Sub-Prior was the first to speak.

"And is this, then, the end of that restless activity of mind, that
bold and indefatigable love of truth that urged investigation to its
utmost limits, and seemed to take heaven itself by storm--is this the
termination of Wellwood's career?--And having known and loved him
during the best years of our youth, do we meet in our old age as judge
and criminal?"

"Not as judge and criminal," said Henry Warden,--for to avoid
confusion we describe him by his later and best known name--"Not as
judge and criminal do we meet, but as a misguided oppressor and his
ready and devoted victim. I, too, may ask, are these the harvest of
the rich hopes excited by the classical learning, acute logical
powers, and varied knowledge of William Allan, that he should sink to
be the solitary drone of a cell, graced only above the swarm with the
high commission of executing Roman malice on all who oppose Roman

"Not to thee," answered the Sub-Prior, "be assured--not unto thee, nor
unto mortal man, will I render an account of the power with which the
church may have invested me. It was granted but as a deposit for her
welfare--for her welfare it shall at every risk be exercised, without
fear and without favour."

"I expected no less from your misguided zeal," answered the preacher;
"and in me have you met one on whom you may fearlessly exercise your
authority, secure that his mind at least will defy your influence, as
the snows of that Mont Blanc which we saw together, shrink not under
the heat of the hottest summer sun."

"I do believe thee," said the Sub-Prior, "I do believe that thine is
indeed metal unmalleable by force. Let it yield then to persuasion.
Let us debate these matters of faith, as we once were wont to conduct
our scholastic disputes, when hours, nay, days, glided past in the
mutual exercise of our intellectual powers. It may be thou mayest yet
hear the voice of the shepherd, and return to the universal fold."

"No, Allan," replied the prisoner, "this is no vain question, devised
by dreaming scholiasts, on which they may whet their intellectual
faculties until the very metal be wasted away. The errors which I
combat are like those fiends which are only cast out by fasting and
prayer. Alas! not many wise, not many learned are chosen; the cottage
and the hamlet shall in our days bear witness against the schools and
their disciples. Thy very wisdom, which is foolishness, hath made
thee, as the Greeks of old, hold as foolishness that which is the only
true wisdom."

"This," said the Sub-Prior, sternly, "is the mere cant of ignorant
enthusiasm, which appealeth from learning and from authority, from the
sure guidance of that lamp which God hath afforded us in the Councils
and in the Fathers of the Church, to a rash, self-willed, and
arbitrary interpretation of the Scriptures, wrested according to the
private opinion of each speculating heretic."

"I disdain to reply to the charge," replied Warden. "The question at
issue between your Church and mine, is, whether we will be judged by
the Holy Scriptures, or by the devices and decisions of men not less
subject to error than ourselves, and who have defaced our holy
religion with vain devices, reared up idols of stone and wood, in form
of those, who, when they lived, were but sinful creatures, to share
the worship due only to the Creator--established a toll-house betwixt
heaven and hell, that profitable purgatory of which the Pope keeps the
keys, like an iniquitous judge commutes punishment for bribes,

"Silence, blasphemer," said the Sub-Prior, sternly, "or I will have thy
blatant obloquy stopped with a gag!"

"Ay," replied Warden, "such is the freedom of the Christian conference
to which Rome's priests so kindly invite us!--the gag--the rack--the
axe--is the _ratio ultima Romae_. But know thou, mine ancient
friend, that the character of thy former companion is not so changed
by age, but that he still dares to endure for the cause of truth all
that thy proud hierarchy shall dare to inflict."

"Of that," said the monk, "I nothing doubt--Thou wert ever a lion to
turn against the spear of the hunter, not a stag to be dismayed at the
sound of his bugle."--He walked through the room in silence.
"Wellwood," he said at length, "we can no longer be friends. Our
faith, our hope, our anchor on futurity, is no longer the same."

"Deep is my sorrow that thou speakest truth. May God so judge me,"
said the Reformer, "as I would buy the conversion of a soul like thine
with my dearest heart's blood."

"To thee, and with better reason, do I return the wish," replied the
Sub-Prior; "it is such an arm as thine that should defend the bulwarks
of the Church, and it is now directing the battering-ram against them,
and rendering practicable the breach through which all that is greedy,
and all that is base, and all that is mutable and hot-headed in this
innovating age, already hope to advance to destruction and to spoil.
But since such is our fate, that we can no longer fight side by side
as friends, let us at least act as generous enemies. You cannot have

'O gran bonta dei caralieri antiqui!
Erano nemici, eran' de fede diversa'--

Although, perhaps," he added, stopping short in his quotation, "your new
faith forbids you to reserve a place in your memory, even for what high
poets have recorded of loyal faith and generous sentiment."

"The faith of Buchanan," replied the preacher, "the faith of Buchanan
and of Beza, cannot be unfriendly to literature. But the poet you have
quoted affords strains fitter for a dissolute court than for a convent."

"I might retort on your Theodore Beza," said the Sub-Prior, smiling;
"but I hate the judgment that, like the flesh-fly, skims over whatever
is sound, to detect and settle upon some spot which is tainted. But to
the purpose. If I conduct thee or send thee a prisoner to St. Mary's,
thou art to-night a tenant of the dungeon, to-morrow a burden to the
gibbet-tree. If I were to let thee go hence at large, I were thereby
wronging the Holy Church, and breaking mine own solemn vow. Other
resolutions may be adopted in the capital, or better times may
speedily ensue. Wilt thou remain a true prisoner upon thy parole,
rescue or no rescue, as is the phrase amongst the warriors of this
country? Wilt thou solemnly promise that thou wilt do so, and at my
summons thou wilt present thyself before the Abbot and Chapter at
Saint Mary's, and that thou wilt not stir from this house above a
quarter of a mile in any direction? Wilt thou, I say, engage me thy
word for this? and such is the sure trust which I repose in thy good
faith, that thou shalt remain here unharmed and unsecured, a prisoner
at large, subject only to appear before our court when called upon."

The preacher paused--"I am unwilling," he said, "to fetter my native
liberty by any self-adopted engagement. But I am already in your
power, and you may bind me to my answer. By such promise, to abide
within a certain limit, and to appear when called upon, I renounce not
any liberty which I at present possess, and am free to exercise; but,
on the contrary, being in bonds, and at your mercy, I acquire thereby
a liberty which I at present possess not. I will therefore accept of
thy proffer, as what is courteously offered on thy part, and may be
honourably accepted on mine."

"Stay yet," said the Sub-Prior; "one important part of thy engagement
is forgotten--thou art farther to promise, that while thus left at
liberty, thou wilt not preach or teach, directly or indirectly, any of
those pestilent heresies by which so many souls have been in this our
day won over from the kingdom of light to the kingdom of darkness."

"There we break off our treaty," said Warden, firmly--"Wo unto me if
I preach not the Gospel!"

The Sub-Prior's countenance became clouded, and he again paced the
apartment, and muttered, "A plague upon the self-willed fool!" then
stopped short in his walk, and proceeded in his argument.--"Why, by
thine own reasoning, Henry, thy refusal here is but peevish obstinacy.
It is in my power to place you where your preaching can reach no human
ear; in promising therefore to abstain from it, you grant nothing
which you have it in your power to refuse."

"I know not that," replied Henry Warden; "thou mayest indeed cast me
into a dungeon, but can I foretell that my Master hath not task-work
for me to perform even in that dreary mansion? The chains of saints
have, ere now, been the means of breaking the bonds of Satan. In a
prison, holy Paul found the jailor whom he brought to believe the word
of salvation, he and all his house."

"Nay," said the Sub-Prior, in a tone betwixt anger and scorn, "if you
match yourself with the blessed Apostle, it were time we had done--
prepare to endure what thy folly, as well as thy heresy,
deserves.--Bind him, soldier."

With proud submission to his fate, and regarding the Sub-Prior with
something which almost amounted to a smile of superiority, the preacher
placed his arms so that the bonds could be again fastened round him.

"Spare me not," he said to Christie; for even that ruffian hesitated
to draw the cord straitly.

The Sub-Prior, meanwhile, looked at him from under his cowl, which he
had drawn over his head, and partly over his face, as if he wished to
shade his own emotions. They were those of a huntsman within
point-blank shot of a noble stag, who is yet too much struck with his
majesty of front and of antler to take aim at him. They were those of
a fowler, who, levelling his gun at a magnificent eagle, is yet
reluctant to use his advantage when he sees the noble sovereign of the
birds pruning himself in proud defiance of whatever may be attempted
against him. The heart of the Sub-Prior (bigoted as he was) relented,
and he doubted if he ought to purchase, by a rigorous discharge of
what he deemed his duty, the remorse he might afterwards feel for the
death of one so nobly independent in thought and character, the
friend, besides, of his own happiest years, during which they had,
side by side, striven in the noble race of knowledge, and indulged
their intervals of repose in the lighter studies of classical and
general letters.

The Sub-Prior's hand pressed his half-o'ershadowed cheek, and his eye,
more completely obscured, was bent on the ground, as if to hide the
workings of his relenting nature.

"Were but Edward safe from the infection," he thought to
himself--"Edward, whose eager and enthusiastic mind presses forward in
the chase of all that hath even the shadow of knowledge, I might trust
this enthusiast with the women, after due caution to them that they
cannot, without guilt, attend to his reveries."

As the Sub-Prior revolved these thoughts, and delayed the definitive
order which was to determine the fate of the prisoner, a sudden noise
at the entrance of the tower diverted his attention for an instant,
and, his cheek and brow inflamed with all the glow of heat and
determination, Edward Glendinning rushed into the room.

Sir Walter Scott