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Chapter 16

NATURAL HISTORY


Or animal life, though abundant, there is little or nothing special to record, besides the list of birds.

Polecats and martens only exist in the old rating book, but weasels and stoats remain, as well as a profusion of their prey--hares and rabbits. Squirrels haunt the trees, and otters are occasionally found in the river. Trout, grayling, now and then a pike, as well as the smaller fry of minnows and sticklebacks, are of course found in the streams. Eels used to be caught there on the moonlight nights by old labourers with a taste for sport, and the quaint little river cray-fish may be picked out of the banks of the "water-carriages."

Toads and frogs are a matter of course. Sometimes a procession of tiny, but perfectly formed "Charley Frogs," as the village boys call them, just emerged from their tadpole state, may be seen making their way up from their native pools.

The pretty crested newt, dark brown and orange, with a gold crest along its back like an iguana, is found in shallow ponds, also the smooth newt. These efts, or evvets, as the people call them, are regarded with horror by the peasantry. The children speak of having seen one as if it were a crocodile; and an abscess in the arm has been ascribed to having picked up an "evvet in a bundle of grass."

The slow-worm, in silvery coat, is too often slaughtered as a snake. Vipers come to light in the woods, also the harmless brown snake. One of these has been seen swimming across a pond, his head just out of the water, another climbing an oak tree, and one, upon the lawn, was induced to disgorge a frog, which gathered up its legs and hopped away as if nothing had happened.

Of rats and mice and such small deer there are only too many, though it is worth while to watch rats at play round a hay-rick on Sunday evenings, when they know they will not be persecuted, and sit up like little kangaroos. The vole, which is not a rat, is a goodly sight, and the smooth round dormouse (or sleep-mouse, as the children call it) is a favourite gift imprisoned in an old tea-pot.

The beautiful nest of a field-mouse has been found in a cypress's thick foliage, and dead shrews bestrew the paths; though the magic effects of having a "sherry mouse" die in one's hand, and thus being enabled to stroke cattle and cure them, have never been experienced.

The anodon or fresh water mussel used to be found in Fisher's Pond on Colden Common, bordering on Otterbourne, and the green banks were strewn with shells left by the herons, but the pond is fast drying up and the herons have been driven away by guns.

The delicate paludina, of brown, horn-coloured, gracefully-formed shell, creeps on the water weeds, and hosts of snails may be studied.

Of insects less can be said here, but it is worth noting that one live purple emperor has been captured in Ampfield wood, two dead dilapidated ones picked up at Otterbourne.

The forest fly, so called, does not often come here; but it is observable that while strange horses are maddened by it, the native ones do not seem disturbed, knowing that it only creeps and does not bite. It is small and brown, not so formidable looking as the large fly, popularly called a stout, as big as a hornet, which lays eggs under the skin of cows.

But with the blue, green, and orange dragonflies of summer, this list must conclude, and turn to the birds and botany of the place, mostly well known, and verified by Mr. Townsend's Flora of Hampshire.

BIRDS

THE KITE (Milvus ictinus).--Sometimes hovering over heathlands or farmyards, but not very common.

SPARROW-HAWK (Accipiter fringillarius).--Taken in a trap set for rats at Otterbourne House.

PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus), Hursley, 1857.--As a pair for many years had a nest on Salisbury spire, this one may have flown thus far.

KESTREL (Falco tinnunculus)--Otterbourne, 1856.

SHORT-EARED OWL (Otus brachyotus).--Baddesley Common, 5th March 1861.

WHITE OWL (Strix flammea).--Nested in a barn, another year in a pigeon-loft, and again in an old tub at Otterbourne. To be seen skimming softly along on summer evenings.

BROWN OWL (Ulula stridula).--Glides over the fields like a huge moth, and on moonlight nights in August may be heard the curious hunting note. As the eggs are hatched, not all at once, but in succession, a family taken out of a loft and put into a sea-kale pot were of various ages, the eldest nearly fledged, standing up as if to guard the nest, the second hissing and snapping, as if a naughty boy, and two downy infants who died. One brown owl was kept tame, and lived 14 years. The village people call this bird Screech Owl, and after a sudden death always mention having heard it.

CHIMNEY SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica).--They chase the flies under the bridges on the Itchen, and display their red throats.

HOUSE-MARTIN (Hirundo urbica).--Twittering everywhere 'neath the straw-built shed.

SAND-MARTIN (Hirundo riparia).--Swarms sit in rows along the electric wires, and bore deeply into every sand-pit.

SWIFT (Cypselus murarius).--First to come and first to go. Their peculiar screech and floating flight are one of the charms of the summer evenings.

NIGHTJAR (Caprimulgus europaeus).--All through the twilight of the long days his purr-purr comes down from the heathery summit of Otterbourne Hill, where he earns his other name of Fern Owl, and may be seen flitting on silent wing in search of moths.

KINGFISHER (Alcedo ispida).--This beautiful creature darts out of the reeds bordering the Itchen, and it used to be at Chandler's Ford before the place was so populated. It seems also to haunt ponds or marshy places in woods, for a young full-fledged one was brought into Otterbourne House by a cat, alive and apparently unhurt. Another took a fancy to the gold-fish in a stone basin at Cranbury, and was shot, as the poor fish could not escape.

SPOTTED FLYCATCHER (Muscicapa grisola).--Late in summer these dainty little birds come whisking about the garden, perching on a rail, darting off after a fly, returning to the same post, or else feeding their young in nests on the side of the house. A pair built in 1897 in a flower-pot close to the window of Otterbourne House.

BUTCHER-BIRD (Lanius collurio).--Said to have been seen at Otterbourne. A slug has been found impaled on a thorn, but whether this was the shrike's larder, or as a charm for removing warts, is uncertain.

MISSEL-THRUSH (Merula viscivora).--This handsome bird is frequent, and commonly called House Screech. A story told by Warden Barter may be worth preserving. A pair of Missel Thrush seeing a peacock too near their nest, charged full at him, and actually knocked him down.

SONG-THRUSH (Merula musica).--Happily everywhere warbling on warm days in autumn and winter with a sweet, powerful song, some notes more liquid than even the nightingale's. The shells of the snails he has devoured bestrew the garden-walks.

BLACKBIRD (Merula vulgaris).--Out, with angry scream and chatter at the approach of an enemy, darts the "ousel cock so black of hue, with orange-tawny bill." How dull a lawn would be without his pert movements when he comes down alternately with his russet wife. One blackbird with a broad white feather on each side of his tail haunted Elderfield for two years, but, alas! one spring day a spruce sable rival descended and captivated the faithless dame. They united, chased poor Mr. Whitetail over the high garden hedge, and he was seen no more.

REDWING (Merula iliaca).--Not common, but noted by J. B. Y.

RING-OUZEL (Merula torquata).--Rare, but observed by J. B. Yonge in Otterbourne Park, 14th September 1865, and it has been seen several times later.

FIELDFARE (Merula pilaris).--In flocks in winter.

WHEATEAR (Sylvia aenanthe).--Comes to the downs.

STONECHAT (Saxicola rubicola).--Hops about on stones.

WHINCHAT (Saxicola rubetra).--On furze bushes on Otterbourne Hill.

REDBREAST (Sylvia rubecula).--A whole brood, two old and four young, used to disport themselves on the quilt of an old bedridden woman on Otterbourne Hill. It is the popular belief that robins kill their fathers in October, and the widow of a woodman declared that her husband had seen deadly battles, also that he had seen a white robin, but she possibly romanced.

REDSTART (Phaenicura ruticilla).--Sometimes seen, but not often.

GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER (Salicaria locustella).--Well named, for it chirps exactly like a grasshopper in the laurels all through a summer evening.

SEDGE-WARBLER (Salicaria fragilis).--Whoever has heard it scolding and chattering in a ridiculous rage at a strange footstep will not wonder at the Scotch name of Blethering Jock. A pair nested in Dell Copse for some years, and the curious nest has been found among the reeds on the banks of the Itchen.

NIGHTINGALE (Sylvia luscinia).--Every year about the 18th of April the notes may be heard by the gate of Cranbury, in a larch wood on Otterbourne Hill, in the copse wood of Otterbourne House, at Oakwood, and elsewhere. For about a week there is constant song, but after nesting begins, it is less frequent. One year there was a nest in the laurels at Otterbourne House (since taken away), and at eight in the morning and seven at night the nightingale came on the lawn to feed, and was every morning chased by a surly John Bull of a robin. When the young are coming out of the nest the parents chide them, or strangers, in a peculiarly harsh chirp.

BLACKCAP (Sylvia atricapilla).--Fair and sweet, but not very frequent; nested in Dell Copse.

WHITETHROAT (Sylvia cinerea).--Darts about gardens, and is locally called Nettle-creeper.

LESSER WHITETHROAT (S. curruca).--Eggs in Dell Copse.

WOOD-WARBLER (Sylvia sylvicola).--Eggs taken at Cranbury.

WILLOW-WARBLER (Sylvia trochilus).--Eggs taken at Baddesley.

CHIEFCHAFF (Sylvia hippolais).--Common in spring.

GOLDEN-CRESTED WREN (Sylvia auricapilla).--A happy little inhabitant of the fir-trees, where it nests, and it is often to be seen darting in and out of a quickset hedge.

SKYLARK (Alauda arvensis).--The joy of eyes and ears in every open field. True to the kindred points of heaven and home.

WOODLARK (Alauda arborea).--Otterbourne Park and Cranbury.

YELLOW-BUNTING or YELLOW-HAMMER (Emberiza citrinella).--A great ornament, especially in autumn, when it sits on rails, crying, "A little bit of bread and no che-e-ese!"

BLACKHEADED or REED BUNTING (Emberiza schaenidus).--Brambridge, April 1896.

SPARROW (Passer domesticus).--One curious fact about this despised animal is that the retired farmer, after whom Elderfield is named, made it his business to exterminate the village sparrows. He often brought them down to one, but always by the next morning that sparrow had provided himself with a mate to share his Castle Dangerous. Sparrows' (or sprows') heads make a figure in many church ratebooks.

CHAFFINCH (Fringilla caelebs).--Chink is the Hampshire name. The hens do not here migrate in winter, but a whole flight of them has been seen in the autumn on the Winchester road, evidently on their way; and once, after an early severe frost, about a hundred were found dead in a haystack near Basingstoke. Thomas Chamberlayne, Esq., who had a singular attraction for birds, used to have them coming to eat grain from his pocket. It has the perfection of a nest.

GOLDFINCH (Carduelis elegans).--This exquisite little bird is frequent on the borders of the chalk hills, where there is plenty of thistledown.

HAWFINCH (Coccothraustes vulgaris).--Sometimes seen, but not common.

LINNET (Linota cannabina).--Fairly frequent.

GREEN LINNET (Coccothraustes chloris).--Greenfinch, or Beanbird as they call it in Devonshire, is a pleasant visitor, though it has a great turn for pease.

WREN (Sylvia troglodytes).--This brisk little being Kitty Wren is to be seen everywhere. Whether Kingsley's theory is right that the little birds roll themselves into a ball in a hole in the winter, I know not. Single ones are certainly to be seen on a bank on a frosty, sunshiny day. Have they come out to view the world and report on it? Those very odd, unused nests are often to be found hanging from the thatch within outhouses. May it be recorded here that a wren once came to peck the sprigs on Miss Keble's gown?

GREAT TITMOUSE (Parus major)--or Ox-eye, as he is here called, bold and bright, crying "Peter" in early spring, and beautiful with his white cheek, and the black bar down his yellow waistcoat.

BLUE TIT (Parus caeruleus).--Bolder and prettier is the little blue- cap, a true sprite and acrobat as Wordsworth calls him.

MARSH-TIT (Parus palustris).--Known by less bright colouring and white breast.

COLE-TIT (Parus ater).--More grey, and very graceful. All these four will gladly come to a window in winter for a little fat hung to a string, and will put themselves into wonderful inverse positions.

LONG-TAILED TIT (Parus caudatus).--Long-tailed Caper, as is his local name, is more shy, and will not come to be fed; but the antics of a family after they have left their domed nest are delightful to watch, as they play in the boughs of a fir-tree.

HEDGE-SPARROW (Accentur modularis).--Quiet, mottled bird, to be seen everywhere.

PIED WAGTAIL (Motacilla lutor).--Most of these stay with us all winter, but one March evening at least forty-three descended on the lawn at Elderfield, doubtless halting in their flight from southern lands. Most winning birds they are, with their lively hop and jerking tails. Dish-washer is their Hampshire name.

GREY WAGTAIL (Motacilla boarula).--This pretty bird is really partly yellow. It is not very frequent here, but is sometimes found on the Itchen bank; likewise the nest in a reedy meadow.

RAY'S WAGTAIL (Motacilla Rayi).--Ray's Wagtail was catching flies on a window at Otterbourne House in 1890.

TREE PITT (Anthus arboreus), MEADOW PIPIT (Anthus pratensis).--Small brown birds, not easy to distinguish; but the eggs differ, and both have been found.

BULLFINCH (Pyrrhula vulgaris).--It is charming to greet the black head and red waistcoat in the tops of the laurels or apple-trees, and surely this destroyer of insect devourers does more good than harm, if he does pick the buds to pieces in the search. He is a delightful pet, of exclusive and jealous attachments, hating every one except his own peculiar favourite; and his sober-coloured lady has quite as much character as he. One which was devoted to her own mistress would assail another of the family with such spite as sometimes to drive her out of the room.

STARLING (Sturnus vulgaris).--Green bedropped with gold when seen closely, but at a distance looking more like a rusty blackbird, though its gait on the lawn always distinguishes it, being a walk instead of a hop. Though not tuneful, no bird has such a variety of notes, and the clatter on the root the call-note, the impatient summons of the brood about to be fed, make it a most amusing neighbour, when it returns to the same tree year after year.

RAVEN (Corvus corax).--He has flown over the village several times. One lived for many years in the yard of the George Inn at Winchester.

CROW (Corvus coronae).--Game-preserving has nearly put an end to him, but he is seen round the folds on the downs in lambing time.

ROOK (Corvus frugilegus).--Shining and black the great birds come down on the fields. There is a rookery at Cranbury, another at Hams Farm at Allbrook, and a considerable one in the beeches near Merdon, for which the rooks deserted some oak-trees nearer the House. While these trees were still inhabited, Mr. G. W. Heathcote observed a number of walnuts under them, and found that the rooks brought them from the walnut avenues. A parliament of these wise birds is sometimes held on the downs, and there are woods where they assemble in great numbers in the autumn, contingents from all lesser rookeries pouring in to spend the winter, and whirling round and round in clouds before roosting.

JACKDAW (Corvus monedula).--A very amusing, though very wicked pet. There used to be throngs of them in the tower of the old church at Hursley, and their droll voices might be heard conversing in the evening. Mr. Chamberlayne had one which, after being freed, always came down to greet him when he walked in the garden.

MAGPIE (Corvus pica).--Pages might be filled with the merry mischief of this handsome creature. Perhaps the most observable characteristic of the three tame ones closely observed was their exclusive and devoted attachment to one person, whom they singled out for no cause that could be known, and followed about from place to place.

JAY (Garrulus glandarius).--May be heard calling in the pine plantations on Hursley Common. It would be as amusing as the magpie if tamed.

GREEN WOODPECKER (Picus viridis).--The laugh and the tap may be heard all through the Spring days. In 1890 Picus major, a small, black, and spotted French Magpie, as Devonians call it, was found, but we have no other right to claim it.

WRYNECK (Yunx torquilla), or Cuckoo's mate, squeaks all round the woods with his head on one side just as the cuckoo comes.

NUTHATCH (Sitta europaea).--This pretty creature will come and be fed on nuts at windows in the winter. These nuts he thrusts into crevices of bark to hold them fast while he hammers the shell. The remains may often be found. For many years a pair built in a hole half-way down an old apple-tree covered with ivy at Otterbourne House, and the exertions of the magpie with clipped wing to swing himself on a trail of ivy into the hole were comical, as well as his wrath when he fell off, as he uniformly did.

TREE-CREEPER (Certhia familiaris), winds round and round the trees like a little mouse.

HOOPOE (Upupa vulgaris).--Once in a frost caught alive by a shepherd on the downs, but it soon died.

CUCKOO (Cuculus canorus).--They cuckoo till "in June he altereth his tune." Probably the stammer is the effort of the young ones to sing. One grew up in a wagtail's nest in the flints that were built into the wall of Otterbourne Churchyard. Another, carried to the other side of the road and caged, was still fed by its foster-parents till it was ready to fly.

WOOD-PIGEON (Columba palumbus) -

Take two cows, Taffy, Taffy, take two-o-o.

Plenty of this immoral exhortation may be heard in the trees. One young pigeon taken from the nest proved incorrigibly wild and ready to flutter to death whenever any one came near it.

TURTLE-DOVE (Columba turtur).--This pretty delicate creature with speckled neck builds in bushes lower than the wood-pigeon, and the mournful note resounds in the trees.

PHEASANT (Phasianus colchicus).--Not a real native, but cultivated to any extent. A cock pheasant with the evening sun gilding his back is a rare picture of beauty.

PARTRIDGE (Tetrao perdix).--Numerous.

HERON (Ardea cinerea).--Sometimes flies far overhead, the long legs projecting behind.

SANDPIPER (Totanus hypoleucus).--Seen walking over a mass of weeds in the Itchen canal.

SNIPE (Scolopax gallinago).--Brought in by sportsmen from the water meadows.

WOODCOCK (Scolopax rusticola).--Not common, but sometimes shot.

JACK-SNIPE (Scolopax gallinula).--Not common, but sometimes shot.

LAND-RAIL (Crex pratensis).--Corn-Crake. May be heard "craking" in the long grass in early morning before the hay is cut.

WATER-RAIL (Rallus aquaticus).--In a meadow at Otterbourne, 22nd January 1855.

LITTLE GREBE (Podiceps minor).--Dabchick, as it is commonly called, swims in the Itchen and in Fisher's Pond (on Colden Common), dipping down suddenly without a trace of the least alarm.

MOOR-HEN (Gallinula chloropus).--Very similar are the ways of the moor-hen, with its brilliant beak. But once, by some extraordinary chance, a moor-hen fell down a cottage chimney, and was brought alive for inspection by a boy, who, ignorant of natural objects, as was always the case in villages forty years ago, thought it a rare foreign specimen. It was a thatched cottage, but if it had been slated the moor-hen might have taken the roof for a sheet of water by moonlight, as the Great Water-Beetle has been known to do, and come down the chimney in like manner. A brood comes constantly to be fed on a lawn at Bishopstoke.

PEEWIT (Vanellus cristatus).--Otherwise the Crested Lapwing. It floats along in numbers when migrating, the whole flock turning at the same time and displaying either the dark or the white side of their wings with a startling effect. They seem effaced for a moment, the next the white sails are shown, then gone again. When paired, and nesting in the meadows, their cry causes their local name, as their other English title is derived from their characteristic manoeuvres to lead the enemy from their young. Did they learn the habit when their so-called plovers' eggs became a dainty?

GOLDEN PLOVER (Charadrius pluvialis).--Noted at Otterbourne meadows by J. B. Yonge.

WILD DUCK (Anas boschas).--The mallard is splendid in plumage, and in shape is far more graceful than his domesticated brother. In early winter the wild ducks fly overhead in a wedge-shaped phalanx, and by and by they pair, and if disturbed start up with a sudden quack, quack from the copse-wood pond. Broods of downy wild ducks have been brought in by boys, but it has almost always proved impossible to rear them.

TEAL (Querquedula anas).--This very pretty little duck used to build on Cranbury Common, but may have been frightened away by increasing population.

GULL (Larus canus).--Flocks of those white-breasted birds sometimes alight on ploughed fields round Otterbourne, and even some miles farther from the sea. They are sometimes kept in gardens to destroy the slugs.

These birds have all been actually seen and noted down by members of the Yonge family.

FLOWERS

TRAVELLER'S JOY (Clematis Vitalba).--Locally called Old Man's Beard, most appropriately, as its curling, silvery masses of seeds hang in wreaths over the hedges. There is a giant trunk growing up from the moat of Merdon Castle.

MEADOW RUE (Thalictrum flavum).--Handsome foliage and blossoms, showing much of anthers, growing on the banks of the Itchen canal.

WINDFLOWER (Anemone nemorosa).--Smellfoxes, as the villagers' children inelegantly term this elegant flower, spreading its pearl- white blossom, by means of its creeping root, all over the copses, and blushing purple as the season advances.

WATER CROWFOOT (Ranunculus aquatilis).--The white flowers, with yellow eyes, make quite a sheet over the ponds of Cranbury Common, etc. Ivy-leaved (R. hederaceus).--Not so frequent. The ivy-shaped leaves float above, the long fibrous ones go below. When there is lack of moisture, leaves and flower are sometimes so small that it has been supposed to be a different species. It was once in a stagnant pond in Boyatt Lane, but is extinct again.

BUTTERCUP or CROWFOOT -

(R. sceleratus) Highly-polished petals, which spangle

(R. acris) the fields and hedges with gold.

(R. repens) All much alike; all haunting

(R. bulbosus) kitchen-gardens and pastures, where the cattle, disliking their taste, leave the stems standing up alone.

SPEARWORT (R. flammula).--Flower like the others, but with narrow leaves.

GOLDILOCKS (R. auricomus).--More delicate, upper leaves spear-shaped, lower pinnate. In the borders of the copse wood of Otterbourne House.

CORN CROWFOOT (R. Ficaria).--Small, growing between the corn with hooked capsules.

SMALL CELANDINE (R. Bcaria).--The real buttercup of childhood, with its crown of numerous shining petals, making stars along the banks at the first breath of spring. One of the most welcome of flowers.

KING CUPS (Caltha palustris).--Large, gorgeous flowers, in every wet place, making a golden river in a dell at Cranbury.

GREEN HELLEBORE (Helleborus viridis).--Under an oak-tree, in a hedgerow leading from King's Lane, Standon, and in Hursley.

FUMITORY (Fumaria officinalis).--The pretty purple blossoms and graceful bluish foliage often spring up in gardens where they are treated as weeds.

YELLOW F. (F. lutea).--An old wall at Hursley.

CLIMBING F. (Corydalis claviculata).--Cuckoo bushes. Standon, and in Hursley.

COLUMBINE (Aquilegia vulgaris).--This group of purple doves, or of Turkish slippers, does not here merit the term vulgaris, though, wherever it occurs, it is too far from a garden to be a stray. Ampfield Wood, Lincoln's Copse, King's Lane, and Crabwood have each furnished a specimen.

BARBERRY (Berberis vulgaris).--This handsome shrub of yellow wood, delicate clusters of yellow flowers, and crimson fruit in long oval bunches has been sedulously banished from an idea that it poisons grass in its vicinity. There used to be a bush in Otterbourne House grounds, but it has disappeared, and only one now remains in the hedge of Pitt Downs.

POPPY (Papaver Rhaeas).--Making neglected fields glorious with a crimson mantle, visible for miles in the sun.

GREATER CELANDINE (Chelidonium majus).--Yellow flowers, very frail, handsome pinnate leaf--lane at Brambridge, Standon, and in Hursley.

CRUCIFERA

ROCKET (Diplotaxis tenuifolia).--Seen at Brambridge.

CHARLOCK (Sinapis arvensis).--Making fields golden.

WHITE C. (S. alba).--Standon, Hursley.

JACK-BY-THE-HEDGE (Sisymbrium alliaria).--Seen at Brambridge.

LADY'S SMOCK (Cardamine pratensis).--No doubt named because the pearly flowers look on a moist meadow like linen bleaching. Sometimes double in rich ground.

HAIRY CARDAMINE (C. hirsuta).--Hursley.

YELLOW ROCKET (Barbarea vulgaris).--Road near Chandler's Ford. Near bridge over Itchen.

WATERCRESS (Nasturtium officinale).--Everywhere in running water, and now Poolhole is made into a nursery for it.

SHEPHERD'S PURSE (Thlaspi Bursa-pastoris).--Even the purses are to be seen before we well know the tiny white flowers to be in blossom.

PENNYCRESS (T. arvense).--Larger, and uplifting a spike of rounded, fan-shaped capsules.

WILD MIGNONETTE (Reseda lutea).--Mignonette all but the perfume-- chalk-pits.

DYER'S ROCKET (R. luteola).--Slenderer and more spiked; more common.

ROCK ROSE (Helianthemum vulgare).--There is an elegance and delicacy of colour about this little cistus which renders it one of the most charming of the many stars of the wayside, as it grows on Compton Hill.

SWEET VIOLET (Viola odorata).--The colour, purple or white or pink, seems to depend on the soil. White are the most common on the chalky side, blue on the gravel.

MARSH V. (V. palustris).--Small and pale, with round leaves. Seen at a spring in Otterbourne Park. (V. permixta).--Pinky--Kiln-yard, Otterbourne.

DOG V. (V. canina).--In every wood, rich and handsome.

SNAKE V. (V. hirta).--More delicate and small, growing in turf-- Pleasure Grounds, Cranbury. (V. Riviniana).--Hursley Park. (V. Reichenbachiana).--Dane Lane. The three last are very probably only sports of canina.

CREAM-COLOURED V. (V. lactea).--More skim-milk coloured, but known by lanceolate leaves--cuckoo bushes.

PANSY (V. tricolor).--Everywhere in fallow fields. In rich soil the upper petals become purple.

SUNDEW -

(Drosera rotundifolia) The curious, hairy, dewy leaves

(D. intermedia) and flowers that never open in full day are to be found in the marshes near Hiltingbury.

MILKWORT (Polygala vulgaris).--Small and blue on Otterbourne Hill, as a stitch in the embroidery of the turf; but larger, blue, pink, or white in the water-meadows beside the Itchen, deserving the American name of May-wings.

CARYOPHYLLEAE

DEPTFORD PINK (Dianthus Armeria).--This used to grow in a field near Highbridge, but has been destroyed, either purposely or by fencing.

BLADDER CAMPION (Silene inflata).--Showing its white flowers and swelling calyxes everywhere.

COMMON CATCHFLY (S. anglica).--Small and insignificant among corn.

RED CAMPION (Lychnis diurna).--Robins, as children call it, with the bright pink in every hedge and the undergrowth in every copse.

WHITE C. (L. vespertina).--The white flowers make a feature in fallow fields.

RAGGED ROBIN (L. Flos-cuculi).--The curiously slashed and divided pink flowers flourish in the water-meadows by the Itchen.

CORN COCKLE (Agrostemma githago).--The beautiful purple blossoms, set in long graceful calyxes, adorn the paths through wheat and barley fields everywhere.

LESSER STITCHWORT (Maenchia erecta). -

CHICKWEED - (Cerastiurn vulgatum) Early plant. Uninteresting (C. arvense) tiny white flowers.

STARWORT (Stellaria Holostea).--The bright stitches of white embroidery on our banks.

CHICKWEED (S. media.)--The chickweed dear to bird-keepers.

(S graminea).--Cobweb-like, almost invisible stems, and blossom with a fairy brightness over the heaths.

(S. uliginosa).--The same adapted to marshes--Cuckoo Bushes, Helmsley.

SANDWORT (Arenaria Rubra).--The little pink flowers crop up through the gravel paths.

CORN SPURREY (Spergula arvensis).--Very long-spurred, with white small blossoms.

(Alsine tenuifolia).--Roman road between Hursley and Sparsholt.

KNAWEL (Scleranthus annuus).--Hursley.

ST. JONN'S-WORT TRIBE

TUTSAN (Hypericum Androsaemum).--Handsome flower, and seeds--Cranbury and Allbrook.

ST. JOHN'S-WORT (H. perforatum).

(H. dubium).

(H. hirsutum).--All frequent in the hedges.

(H. humifusum).

(H. pulchrum).

(H. Elodes).--Bogs near Cuckoo Bushes.

(H. quadrangulum).

MALLOW (Malva sylvestris).--Everywhere by roadsides, used to be esteemed by old women as a healing "yarb."

MUSK M. (M. moschata).--A beautiful pink or white flower, grows all over the park at Cranbury.

DWARF M. (M. rotundifolia).--Flower white, with purple streaks, almost stemless, grows under a wall in Otterbourne Street.

SMALL-LEAVED LIME (Tilia parvifolia).--Hursley Park; avenue at Brambridge, where four rows form three magnificent aisles.

CRANESBILL TRIBE

DOVE'S-FOOT CRANE'S-BILL (Geranium Columbinum).--Roadsides.

SHINING C. (G. lucidum).--Heap of stones, Hursley.

(G. dissectum).--Everywhere.

(G. Molle).--Otterbourne

HERB ROBERT C. (G. Robertianum).--Very common, and the crimson leaves a great winter ornament.

BLOODY C. (G. phaeum).--Ladwell Hill, where it may be a remnant of a cottage garden.

STORK'S-BILL (Erodium moschatum).--Otterbourne Hill.

(E. cicutarium).--Farley Mount.

WOOD-SORREL (Oxalis Acetosella).--This exquisite plant with delicate flower and trefoil leaves grows on many mossy banks, especially on one on the Ampfield Road.

HOLLY (Ilex Aquifolium).--The glory of the peaty woods. The people distinguish the berried shrubs as holly, i.e. holy, those without berries being holm.

SPINDLE-TREE (Euonymus europaeus).--Also called skewer wood. "A tree that grows on purpose," as an old woman said of the material of her pegs. The charming berries with their crimson hearts are plentiful in King's Lane.

BUCKTHORN (Rhamnus Frangula).--Otterbourne Hill. (R. catharticus) .--Hursley.

SYCAMORE (Acer Pseudo-platanus).--Road by Oakwood.

MAPLE (A. campestre).--Painting the hedges in autumn with its yellow leaves.

LEGUMINOSE

FURZE (Ulex europaeus).--Brilliant on all the commons on gravel or peat.

DWARF FURZE (U. nanus)--Rather less frequent.

BROOM (Genista scoparia).--Exquisite golden spires on the peat.

NEEDLE BROOM (G. anglica).--Cuckoo Bushes.

DYER'S GREENWEED (G. tinctoria).--In a ditch in a meadow on the Ampfield Road.

REST HARROW (Ononis arvensis).--Pretty pink and white blossoms like miniature lady-peas on a troublesome weed.

KIDNEY VETCH (Anthyllis Vulneraria) .--Borders of down.

BLACK MEDICK (Medicago lupulina).--Chalk-pit.

(M. denticulata) .--Ampfield.

MELILOT (Melilotus officinalis).--Kiln Lane, Otterbourne.

BIRDSFOOT (Ornithopus perpusillus).--Otterbourne Hill.

(Trigonella ornithopodioides).--Otterbourne.

TREFOIL ( Trifulium subterraneum).

(T. pratense).

DUTCH CLOVER (T. repens).

HOPDOWN (T. procumbens).

(T. minus).

(T. hybridum).

STRAWBERRY TREFOIL (T. fragiferum).--Once on canal bank.

MILK VETCH (Hippocrepis comosa).--Hursley.

BIRD'S-FOOT TREFOIL (Lotus corniculatus).--This golden or ruddy part of the embroidery of the down is known to children as Ladies' Slippers or Ladies' Fingers.

(L. major).--A taller variety.

TARE (Ervum hirsutum).--Tiny grey flowers. (E. tetraspermum).

PURPLE VETCH (Vicia Cracca).--Throwing royal purple garlands over every hedge in the lanes.

COMMON V. (V. sativa).--Very common, varying from crimson to dark red.

WOOD V. (V. sepium).--A brilliant little red flower.

GRASS VETCHLING (Lathyrus Nissolia).--Found once in a bank near Chandler's Ford; once at Silkstede.

WOOD V. (L. sylvestris).--Doubtful, but something like it grows in Sparrow Grove near the waterworks.

YELLOW V. (L. pratensis).--Common, mixed with grass.

HEATH PEA (Orobus tuberosus).--On the peat soil.

ROSE TRIBE

BLACKTHORN (Prunus spinosa).--It is believed that no hurt is so hard of healing as from a blackthorn. Also blackthorn winter is supposed to bring fresh cold in spring, when the bushes almost look as if clothed by hoar-frost.

WILD CHERRY (P. Avium).--The fine, tall, shapely trees put on their bridal show in the woods of Cranbury and Ampfield.

BIRD-CHERRY (P. Padus).--Not very common. There is one in the grounds at Otterbourne House, but it is not certainly wild.

MEADOW-SWEET (Spiraea Ulmaria).--Raising its creamy cymes of blossoms in every ditch where there is a little moisture.

DROPWORT (S. Filipendula).--On the borders of Pitt Down and Crab Wood.

AGRIMONY (Agrimonia Eupatoria).--Long yellow spikes in all dry hedges.

BURNET (Sanguisorba officinalis).--Chalk-pit by Sparrow Grove, also Dane Lane, where the green balls with tiny red blossoms may be found, and sometimes the green and crimson burnet moth.

BARREN STRAWBERRY (Potentilla Fragariastrum).--How often has "mustn't pick the strawberry blossom" been quoted to this delusive little white cinquefoil in early spring, when it peeps out among leaves very like strawberry-leaves in the hedge.

TORMENTIL (P. Tormentilla).--This is now ranged among the cinquefoils, though it has only four petals, owing perhaps to the very dry barren heathy soil it brightens with its stars.

CINQUEFOIL (P. repens).--A smiling pentagon star by the wayside.

SILVER-WEED or GOOSE-GRASS (P. anserina).--Why dedicated to geese, even in Latin, it is hard to say. Silver-weed is more appropriate to the silver-grey leaves that border road-sides, sometimes with golden flowers.

MARSH CINQUEFOIL (Comarum palustre).--A prize in Baddesley bog, unless drains have banished its pure flower.

WOOD STRAWBERRY (Fragaria vesca).--Profuse in Cranbury and on banks of railway at Sparrow Grove.

WILD RASPBERRY (Rubus Idaeus).--Cranbury, near the road.

WILD BLACKBERRY (R. fruticosus).--Brambles, of course, everywhere, but it is impossible to pass them without a tribute to their beauty, in flower, in fruit, and, above all, in autumn foliage.

DEWBERRY (R. caesius).--What is probably dewberry grows by the roadway through Mallibar Copse.

(R. leucostratus).--Roman Road and Cranbury Common.

HERB BENNET (Geum urbanum).--Insignificant yellow flower.

WATER AVENS (G. rivale).--Quaint little ruddy half-expanded blossoms, called by the villagers Granny's Night-caps. (G. intermedium).--Really intermediate--probably hybrid. Found once in a copse between Boyatt Lane and the Southampton Road.

LADY'S MANTLE (Alchemilla arvensis).--Crabwood.

SWEET-BRIAR (Rosa rubiginosa).--Copse by pond, Cranbury.

DOG-ROSE (R. canina).--With handsomer hips.

WHITE DOG-ROSE (R. arvensis).

HAWTHORN (Crataegus monogyna).--Who does not love when the blossoms cover them like snow-drift? Well are they called May.

MOUNTAIN ASH (Pyrus Aucuparia).--This rowan-tree of Scotland has no weird horrors here, but it is the ornament of the woods, with white cymes, red berries, and feathery leaves.

CRAB-TREE (P. Malus).--Romsey Road, where the pinky blossoms show opposite Cranbury Gate.

WHITEBEAM (P. Aria).--Grey or white leaves shine out in Ampfield Wood.

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE (Lythrum salicaria).--Ophelia's long purples adorn the water-courses in the Itchen mead.

WILLOW-HERB TRIBE

ROSEBAY WILLOW-HERB (Epilobium angustifolium).--This splendid flower, rose-coloured, white-pistilled and red-leaved, spreads in sheets in Cranbury Copse and on railway cuttings, at Cuckoo Bushes, and in Ampfield Wood.

CODLINS-AND-CREAM (E. hirsutum).--Adorning wet places.

SMALL WILLOW-HERB--

(E. parvaeorurn) Troublesome though pretty weeds in the garden.

(E. tetragonum)

(E. roseum)

(E. montanum).--Found at Ampfield.

ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE (Circaea lutetiana).--A graceful, delicate- looking plant of universal occurrence.

WATER STARWORT (Callitriche verna).--Ponds.

MARESTAIL (Hippuris vulgaris).--Waves with the current of the stream in the Itchen.

WHITE BRYONY (Bryonia dioica).--Vine-like leaves wreathe round in the hedges, and the pale, whitish flowers give place to graceful clusters of red berries.

GOOSEBERRY (Ribes Grossularia).--Lane towards Brambridge.

SAXIFRAGEA

ORPINE (Sedum Telephium).--Also called Midsummer May; grows in Otterbourne Park, and a large bunch on the Romsey Road. An old woman described having tried the augury, having laid the plants in pairs on Midsummer Eve, naming them after pairs of sweethearts. Those that twisted away from each other showed inconstancy!

STONECROP (S. anglicum).--Otterbourne Hill. (S. acre).--Hursley.

HOUSELEEK (Sempervivum tectorum).--Also called Sin-green, or some word so sounding. It is not permitted to blow upon the roof on which it grows, for fear of ill-luck, which is strange, as it has been Jupiter's beard, Thor's beard, and St. George's beard, and in Germany is thought to preserve from thunder.

SAXIFRAGE (Saxifraga tridactylites).--Hursley.

GOLDEN S. (Chrysosplenium oppositifolium).--Wet places in Lincoln's Copse.

MARSH PENNYWORT (Hydrocotyle vulgaris).--Bogs at Cuckoo Bushes.

WOOD SANICLE (Sanicula vulgaris).--In all the copses.

UMBELLIFERA

GOUTWEED (AEgopodium Podagra).--Handsome leaves, but a troublesome weed.

PIGNUT (Bunium flexuosum).--The delicate, lace-like, umbellate flowers in all the woods.

WATER DROPWORT (OEnanthe fistulosa).--Banks of Itchen.

WATER HEMLOCK (OE. crocata).--Itchen banks.

WILD CARROT (Daucus Carota).

BURNET SAXIFRAGE (Pimpinella Sax Jraga).--Hursley.

COW PARSLEY (Chaerophyllum sylvestre).--Boys may be seen bearing home bundles for their rabbits.

SHEPHERD'S NEEDLE (Scandix Pecten Veneis).--In cornfields.

HEDGE PARSLEY (Torilis infesta).--Hursley.

HEMLOCK (Conium maculatum).

IVY (Hedera Helix).--Everywhere.

DOGWOOD (Cornus sanguinea).--The red and purple of the fading leaves mixed with the yellow of the maples make every hedge a study.

MISTLETOE (Viscum album).--Grows on hawthorns in Hursley Park, and on apple-trees at Otterbourne.

MOSCATEL (Adoxa Moschatellina).--This dainty little green-headed plant is one of the harbingers of spring.

ELDER (Sambucus nigra).--In most hedges, though its honours are gone as the staple of elder-wine, and still better of elder-flower water, which village sages used to brew, and which was really an excellent remedy for weak eyes.

GUELDER-ROSE (Viburnum Opulus).--Equally handsome whether white- garlanded cymes of blossoms or scarlet berries, waxen when partly ripe.

WAYFARING-TREE (V. Lantana).--Not quite so common, but handsome, with white flowers and woolly leaves.

HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera Periclymenum).--To be seen in full glory waving on the top of a holly-tree, and when the stem has become amalgamated with a bough, circling it like the staff of Esculapius, it is precious to boys.

(L. Caprifolium).--Noted as once found, but not lately.

MADDER TRIBE

MADDER (Rubia peregrina).--Tiny flowers--Otterbourne Hill.

CROSSWORT or MUGWORT (Galium Cruciatum).--Roadside, Allbrook.

YELLOW LADY'S BEDSTRAW (G. verum).--Everywhere.

MARSH B. (G. palustre).--Cuckoo Bushes. (G. uliginosum).--Gravel-pit, Otterbourne.

WHITE BEDSTRAW (G. erectum).--Winchester Road.

CLEAVERS or CLIDERS (G. Aparine).--Everywhere.

ROUGH (G. Mollugo).--Cornfields.

WOODRUFF (Asperula odorata).--Sparrow Grove.

(A. cynanchica).--Chalk downs.

FIELD MADDER (Sherardia arvensis).--Otterbourne Hill.

VALERIAN (Valeriana dioica).--Itchen meadows.

LESSER V. (V. officinalis).--Itchen meadows.

LAMB'S LETTUCE (Valerianella olitorium).--Downs and stubble-fields.

TEASEL (Dipsacus sylvestris).--Grand ornament to the hedges. On a fallow field it came up in quantities, as if sown.

DEVIL'S-BIT SCABIOUS (Scabiosa succisa).--Makes grey clouds all over Cranbury Park.

COMMON S. (S. arvensis).--Everywhere.

LESSER S. (S. Columbaria).--Malabar wayside.

HARE BELL (Campanula rotundifolia).--Otterbourne Hill.

NETTLE-LEAVED BELLFLOWER (C. Trachelium).--Road-sides.

CLUSTERED B. (C. glomerata).--Pitt Down.

COMPOSITAE

THISTLES (Carduus nutans).

(C. tenuifolia).

MILK THISTLE (Silybum marianum).--Once in Boyatt Lane.

(S crispus).

(Cnicus lanceolatus).

(C. palustris).

(C. arvensis).

STEMLESS T. (C. acaulis).--Little purple stars on the downs.

CARLINE (Carlina vulgaris).

BURDOCK (Arctium Lappa).--Everywhere. (A. tomentosa).

SAW-WORT (Serratula tinctoria).--Copses round King's Lane.

KNAPWEED (Centaurea nigra).--Everywhere.

(C. Cyanea).--In fields about Hursley occasionally.

(C. Scabiosa).--Hursley.

CORN MARIGOLD (Chrysanthemum segetum).--Sometimes plentiful, but dependent on crops.

OX-EYE DAISY (C. Leucanthemum).--Everywhere.

CAMOMILE (Pyrethrum inodorum).--Everywhere.

TANSY (Tanacetum vulgaris).--King's Lane.

COMMON CHAMOMILE (Anthemis nobilis).

(A. arvensis).

(A. Cotula).

YARROW (Achillea Millefolium).

SNEEZEWORT (A. Ptarmica).--Southampton Road sides.

WORMWOOD (Artemisia vulgaris).--Kiln Lane turns to Moat House.

CUDWEED (Gnaphalium minimum).

(G. germanium).

(G. sylvaticum).

GROUNDSEL (Senecio vulgaris).

(S. sylvaticus).

RAGWORT (S. Jacobaea).--Often covered with black and yellow caterpillars.

(S. viscosus).--Marked as found at Hursley.

(S. aquaticus).

FLEABANE (Inula Conyza).--Southampton Road. (I. Pulicaria).

DAISY (Bellis perennis).

BLUE FLEABANE (Erigeron acris).

GOLDENROD (Solidago Virga-aurea).--Wood-paths and road-sides.

COLTSFOOT (Tussilago Farfara).--In all chalky fields.

BUTTERBUR (Petasites vulgaris).--Banks of Itchen.

BUR-MARIGOLD (Bidens cernua).--It used to be in a marsh on the Romsey Road, but has not been seen lately.

HEMP AGRIMONY (Eupatorium cannabinum).--In all hedges near moisture.

CHICORY (Cichorium Intybus).--Now and then showing its pretty blue flower on the roadside.

NIPPLEWORT (Lapsana communis).--Too frequent weed.

DANDELION (Leontodon Taraxacum).--How can its praise for glorious brilliant flowers and stems fit for chains be passed by, or for the "clocks" that furnish auguries!

(L. autumnalis).--Is this a separate species, or the dandelion blowing in autumn?

GO-TO-BED AT NOON (Tragopogon pratensis).--Beautiful when open early in the day, beautiful when the long calyx is closed, and most beautiful with its handsome winged pappus--King's Lane, Otterbourne Churchyard.

WILD LETTUCE (Lactuca muralis).--On heaps of flints.

MOUSEAR (Thrincia hirta).--Sulphur-coloured, small, and held to be an excellent remedy for whooping-cough.

OX-TONGUE (Helminthia echioides).--The rough leaf is well named.

HAWKBIT (Hieracium autumnale).

(Apargia hispida).--In cornfields.

SHEEP'S-BIT (Jasione montana).--Cranbury Common.

SOW THISTLE (Sonchus arvensis).

(S. palustris).

WHORTLEBERRY (Vaccinium Myrtillus).--Ampfield Wood.

CROSS-LEAVED HEATH (Erica Tetralix) Otterbourne Hill, the glory of early autumn.

BELL HEATHER (E. cinerea).

LING (Calluna vulgaris)

BIRD'S NEST (Monotropa Hypopitys).--South Lynch Wood.

ASH (Fraxinus excelsior).

PRIVET (Ligustrum vulgare).--Lane leading to the Itchen.

GENTIAN TRIBE

THE PERIWINKLE (Vinca minor).--Curiously irregular in blossoming. One spring the ground is covered with blue stars, another only with evergreen trails. Its only habitat here is Lincoln's Copse.

YELLOWWORT (Chlora perfoliata).--Ampfield Wood.

CENTAURY (Erythraea Centaurea).--Cranbury.

GENTIAN (Gentiana Pneunomanthe).--Baddesley bog, Cranbury.

(G. Amarella).--Pitt Down.

BOGBEAN (Menyanthes trifolium).--This lovely flower abides in the wet banks of the Itchen.

BINDWEED (Convolvulus sepium).--Pure and white.

(C. minor).--In shades of pink. Called lilies by the country-folk.

DODDER (Cuscuta Epithymum).--Red threads forming a beaded network over the furze.

(C. Trifolii).--Coarser fibres, smaller balls of blossom, in some years strangling the clover.

WOODY NIGHTSHADE (Solanum Dulcamara).--Purple flowers, red berries, beautiful everywhere.

(S. nigrum).--White-flowered, black-berried. At Cranbury, and occasionally elsewhere.

DEADLY NIGHTSHADE (Atropa belladonna).--Used to be near the front door at Hursley Park.

HENBANE (Hyoscyamus niger).--Formerly on the top of Compton Hill, and at the angle of the lane leading to Bunstead.

BORAGE TRIBE

MULLEIN (Verbascum nigrum). The handsome spikes

(V. Thapsus) everywhere.

(V. Blattaria).--Formerly in hedge of cottage at Silkstede.

GROMWELL (Lithospermum officinale).--Beside Winchester Road on way to Twyford.

FORGET-ME-NOT (Myosotis palustris).--Itchen meadows.

MOUSE-EAR, SCORPION GRASS (M. versicolor).--Stubblefields.

(M. sylvatica).--Ampfield.

(M. arvensis).--Everywhere.

COMFREY (Symphytum officinale).--Itchen banks.

HOUND'S TONGUE (Cynoglossum officinale).--Merdon Hill, but it has disappeared from Otterbourne.

PRIMROSE (Primula vulgaris).--Has any one observed the tiny blossoms of seedlings of the first year? Now and then there are stalked heads like oxlips, white or red varieties.

COWSLIP (P. veris).--Covering some few fields, and delightful for cowslip balls. Sweetest of scents.

YELLOW LOOSESTRIFE (Lysimachia vulgaris).--A beautiful shrub by the water-side.

MONEYWORT (L. Nummularia).--The Creeping-Jenny of rock-work, etc.

YELLOW PIMPERNEL (L. nemorum).--Covering the ground in woods with its delicate pentagon stars.

PIMPERNEL (Anagallis arvensis).--A beautiful blue variety once came up in the kitchen-garden at Otterbourne House, and prevailed for several years.

(A. tenella).--In the bogs towards Cuckoo Bushes.

LABIATAE

WATER FIGWORT - (Scrophularia Balbisii). Both common and not beautiful.

(S. nodosa)

FOXGLOVE (Digitalis purpurea).--All over the gravelly and peaty woods in splendid congregations of spires--called by the children poppies.

LESSER SNAPDRAGON (Antirrhinum Orontium).--Occasionally in gardens.

WILD SAGE (Salvia Verbenaca).--Ampfield.

SELF-HEAL (Prunella vulgaris).--Called Lady's Slipper.

SKULLCAP (Scutellaria galericulata).--Itchen bank.

(S. minor).--Cranbury hedge on Romsey Road.

BLACK HOREHOUND (Bellota faetida).--Hursley hedges.

BASTARD BALM (Melittis Melissophyllum).--Ampfield Wood.

BETONY (Stachys Betonica).

(S. palustris).

(S. sylvatica).

(S. arvensis).

RED ARCHANGEL (Galeopsis Tetrahit).--Near Chandler's Ford.

MOTHERWORT (Leonurus Cardiaca).--Alas, a dried specimen only remains of this handsome flower, which was sacrificed to a pig-stye on Otterbourne Hill.

WEASEL SNOUT or YELLOW NETTLE (Galeobdolon luteum).

WHITE ARCHANGEL, or BLIND NETTLE (Lamium album).--sometimes with a purple flower.

(L. purpureum).--Everywhere.

BUGLE (Ajuga reptans).--All over the woods.

GERMANDER, WOOD-SAGE (Teucrium Scorodonia).--Cranbury Wood.

BUGLOSS (Lycopsis arvensis).--Sand-pit, Boyatt Lane.

VIPER'S BUGLOSS (Echium vulgare).--Chalk-pits.

GREAT YELLOW TOADFLAX (Linaria vulgaris).--In most hedges.

IVY-LEAVED T. (L. Cymbalaria).--Old wall of Merdon Castle.

FLUELLEN (L. Elatine).--In stubble-fields.

(L. spuria).--In the same locality.

CREEPING T. (L. repens).--Chandler's Ford, and hedge of Romsey Road by Pot Kiln.

LESSER T. (L. minor).--Hursley.

SPEEDWELL (Veronica hederifolia).--Hursley, Ampfield.

(V. polita).

(V. Buxbaumii).--In fallow fields all the winter and spring.

(V. arvensis).

(V. officinalis).--Cranbury.

BIRD'S EYE (V. Chamvdrys).--Exquisite blue along the hedges on the chalk and clay.

(V. montana).--Ampfield.

(V. scutellata).

BROOKLIME (V. Beccabunga).--Esteemed a sovereign remedy for an old woman's bad leg.

(V. Anagallis).--Less common, but both frequent the river and the marshes.

EYEBRIGHT (Euphrasia officinalis).--Downs and heaths.

RED EYEBRIGHT (Bartsia Odontites).--woods.

RED RATTLE (Pedicularis palustris).--Itchen meadows.

(P. sylvatica).--Otterbourne Hill.

YELLOW RATTLE (Rhinanthus Crista-galli).--Itchen meadows.

YELLOW COW-WHEAT (Melampyrum pratense).--Otterbourne Park.

TOOTHWORT (Lathraea squamaria).--South Lynch Wood.

BROOMRAPE (Orobanche repens).--Mallibar roadway.

(O. elatior).--Sparrow Grove.

(O. minor).--Clover-fields, Otterbourne. Wonderful brown parasites, all three.

VERVEIN (Verbena officinalis).--Road-sides.

GIPSYWORT (Lycopus europaerus).--Dell Copse and all bogs.

HORSE MINT (Mentha sylvestris).

(M. hirsuta).

(M. sativa).

(M. arvensis).

THYME (Thymus Serpyllum).--On many a bank does the wild thyme grow, with its perfume delicious.

MARJORAM (Origanum vulgare).--Banks of Winchester Road.

MONKEY FLOWER (Mimulus Luteus)--Bank of Itchen Canal, where it has spread considerably, though probably a stray.

BASIL THYME (Calamintha vulgaris).--Stubble-fields show this lovely little blue flower with a white crescent on the lip.

(C. menthifolia).--Merdon Castle.

BASIL (C. Clinopodium).--Itchen.

CAT MINT (Nepeta Cataria).--Hedge towards Stoneham.

GROUND IVY (N. Glechoma).--Everywhere in woods.

PLANTAIN TRIBE

KNOCKHEADS (Plantago major).

LESSER PLANTAIN (P. media). (P. lanceolata).

STAGSHORN (P. Coronopus).--Otterbourne Hill.

GOOD KING HENRY (Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus).

GOOSEFOOT (C. album).

(C. urbicum).

DOCK (Rumex sanguineus).

(R. obtusfolius).

(R. pratensis).

WATER DOCK (R. Hydrolapathum).--Fit table-cloth for the butterfly's table.

SORREL (R. Acetosa).

LESSER SORREL (R. Acetosella).--Elegant and slender, making red clouds all over Cranbury.

BUCKWHEAT (Polygonum fagopyrum).--For several seasons in a meadow by Brooklyn. Now vanished.

KNOTGRASS (P. Convolvulus).

BLACK BINDWEED (P. aviculare).

WATER PEPPER (P. Hydropiper).

PERSICARIA (P. Persicaria).

(P. dumetorum).--Ampfield.

BASTARD TOADFLAX (Thesium linophyllum).--Crab Wood.

SUN SPURGE (Euphorbia Helioscopia).--Corn-fields.

WOOD S. (E. amygdaloides).--Cranbury and Otterbourne Park.

SMALL S. (E. Peplus).

(E. exigua).

DOG'S MERCURY (Mercurialis perennis).--First to clothe the banks with fresh vernal green.

NETTLE (Urtica dioica).

SMALL NETTLE (U. nana).

HOD (Humulus Lupulus).--If not native, it has taken well to the hedges, and clothes them with graceful wreaths.

ELM (Ulmus campestris)--Largest of spreading trees.

OAK (Quercus Robur).--Acorns differ on many trees. Five varieties of Cynips produce different oak-apples. Oak is still worn on the 29th of May, and it is called Shik-shak Day. Why?

BEECH (Fagus sylvatica).--Beautiful at Ampfield and South Lynch, and permitting only a select few plants to grow under its shade.

HAZEL (Corylus Avellana).

ALDER (Alnus glutinosa).

BIRCH (Betula alba).--Silver-leaved and white-barked, making fairy groves.

ASPEN (Populus tremula).--Aps, the people call it. The catkins are like caterpillars.

WILLOW or WITHY (Salix Caprea).--Our yellow goslings in spring, as they shoot from their silver rabbit-tail catkins, and our palms on Palm Sunday, though it is unlucky to bring one home earlier.

(S. triandra).--Near the old church, Otterbourne.

(S. rubra).

ROUND-LEAVED W. (S. aurita).

SALLOW W. (S. cinerea).

WHITE W. (S. alba).

(S. fragilis).

DWARF W. (S. repens).--Bogs towards Baddesley.

OSIER W. (S. viminalis).--Ampfield.

JUNIPER (Juniperus communis).--Above Standon on Down.

YEW (Taxus baccata).--Scattered in hedges, or singly all over the chalk district.

REEDMACE (Typha latifolia).--Itchen. Noble plant, commonly, but incorrectly, called bulrush.

BUR-REED (Sparganium ramosum).--With fertile flowers like prickly balls.

LORDS-AND-LADIES or CUCKOO-PINT (Arum maculatum).--Showing their heads under every hedge. The lords have a red column, the ladies a white.

DUCKWEED (Lemna trisulca).

GREAT WATER PLANTAIN (Alisma Plantago).--Stately ornament of bogs.

THE LILY TRIBE

GARLIC (Allium ursinum).--On road to Baddesley.

CROW G. (A. vineale).--Chalk ridges, if not destroyed by waterworks.

FLAG (Iris pseudacorus).--Itchen banks.

STINKING F. (I. faetidissima).--Not common, but in two copses, one at Cranbury and the other on the north of King's Lane.

DAFFODIL (Narcissus Pseudonarcissus).--Dell Copse, which it covers with the glory of the "dancing daffodil"; also plantation near Romsey Road.

BLACK BRYONY (Tamus communis).--Wreaths of shiny leaves.

SOLOMON'S SEAL (Polygonatum multiflorum).--Cranbury Wood.

BUTCHER'S BROOM (Ruscus aculeatus).--Otterbourne Hill.

BLUEBELL (Hyacinthus nonscriptus).--Masses in the woods.

WOODRUSH (Luzula sylvatica).--Graceful brown blossoms.

PYRAMIDAL ORCHIS (Orchis pyramidalis).--Chalk-pit by Sparrow Grove.

FOOL'S O. (O. Morio).--Cranbury.

PURPLE O. (O. mascula).--Local name, Dead Man's Fingers.

ROMSEY O. (O. incarnata).--Itchen meadows.

BROAD-LEAVED O. (O. latifolia).--Itchen meadows.

SPOTTED O. (O maculata).

DWARF O. (O. ustulata).--Downs by South Lynch.

SWEET O. (Gymnadenia conopsea).--Itchen meadows.

BUTTERFLY O. (Habenaria bifolia).--Sparrow Grove.

BEE O. (Ophrys apifera).--Railway banks and South Lynch.

FLY O. (O. muscifera).--South Lynch Down.

LADY'S TRESSES (Spiranthes autumnalis).--Cranbury lawn, but fitful in appearing.

TWAYBLADE (Listera ovata).--In hedges and woods.

BIRD'S-NEST ORCHIS (L. Nidus-avis).--Only under beeches.

HELLEBORINE (Epipactis latifolia).--Here and there in hedges.

(E. grandiflora).--Under beeches.

(E. palustris).--Chalk-pit.

REEDS

BOGRUSH (L. campestris).--Little rush.

(L. pilosa).--Ampfield Wood.

RUSH (Juncus conglomeratus).--The days of rush-lights are gone by, but rush-baskets for flowers and helmets are made by the children, and the white pith, when pressed, is made up into devices.

(F. effusus)

(F. glaucus) All in Itchen meadows.

(F. acutiflorus)

(F. squamosus)

BEAKRUSH (Rhynchospora fusca).

SINGLE BULRUSH (Scirpus lacustris).

(S. sylvatica).--Marsh near Baddesley Road.

(S. setaceus).

COTTON GRASS (Eriophorum angustifolium).--The soft cottony or silky heads are beautiful on the Itchen roads.

SEDGES (Carex pulicaris).

(C. acuta).--Copses.

(C. paniculata).--Itchen Canal.

(C. riparia).--Dell Copse.

STAR SEDGE (C. stellulata).--Copses.

(C. verna).

(C. acuta).--A lovely black and yellow fringe to the Itchen Canal.

(C. pallescens).--Damp places.

(C. paludosa).--Banks of Itchen Canal.

(C. sylvatica).--Cranbury.

(C. remota).--Boyatt Lane.

GRASSES

SWEET MEADOW GRASS (Anthoxanthum odoratum).

CANARY G. (Phalaris canariensis).--A stray.

FOXTAIL G. (Alopecurus pratensis).

(A. agrestis).

(A. geniculatus).

CAT-TAIL G. (Phleum pratense).

DOG'S G. (Agrostis canina).

(A. alba).

(A. vulgaris).

REED (Arundo Phragmites).--Waving brown tassels, beautiful for adornments--Itchen banks, and hedge of allotments on Otterbourne Hill.

MILLET GRASS (Milium effusum).

HAIR G. (Aira flexuosa).

(A. aespitosa).--Tufts on the hill, Otterbourne.

WILD OATS (Avena fatua).--Grown far more common than formerly.

(A. strigosa).

(A. pratensis).

(A. flavescens).

SOFT GRASS (Holcus mollis).

MELICK (Melica caerulea).--Cranbury.

(M. uniflora).--Dell Copse.

WHORL GRASS (Catabrosa aquatica).--The moat, Otterbourne.

(Glyceria nutans).--The moat.

MEADOW G. (Poa rigida).

(P. annua).

(P. nemoralis).

(P. pratensis).

(P. trivialis).

QUAKER'S G. (Briza media).

(B. minor).

DOG'S-TAIL G. (Cynosurus cristatus).

COCK'S-FOOT G. (Dactylis glomerata).

FESCUE (Festuca ovina).

(F. pratensis).

(F. lolacea).

BROME GRASS (Bromus giganteus).--Cranbury.

(B. asper).

(B. sterilis).

(B. racemosus).

(B. mollis).

(B. arvensis).

COUCH G. (Triticum caninum).

(T. repens).

RYE G. or MOUSE BARLEY (Lolium perenne).--Also Darnel.

FERNS, ETC.

BRACKEN (Pteris aquilina).--All over Cranbury.

HARD FERN (Blechnum boreale).--Mallibar Road between Albrook and Highbridge.

WALL-RUE (Asplenium Ruta-muraria).

BLACK MAIDENHAIR (A. Trichomanes).--Used to be on tombstones in old churchyard, Otterbourne.

LADY FERN (Athyrium Filix faemina).--Cranbury.

(Ceterach officinale).--Merdon Castle.

HART'S TONGUE (Scolopendrium officinale).

(Polystichum angulare).--Cranbury.

MALE FERN (Lastrea Filix-mas).

(L. spinulosa).

(L. dilatata).--Otterbourne Park.

(L. thalipteris).--Cranbury.

HAY F. (L. Oreopteris).--Road to Baddesley.

POLYPODY (Polypodium vulgare).

ADDER'S TONGUE (Ophioglossum vulgare).--Field called Pleasure Grounds, Otterbourne.

HORSETAILS (Equisetum arvense).

(E. maximum).

Footnotes:

[17] Hursley ceased to be a Peculiar about the year 1840.

[25] Hurstleigh, as it was originally spelt, is derived from Hurst, a wood, Legh or Lea, a meadow or open place in a wood.

[28] The General Biographer's Dictionary says 51 in all.

[32] So says the Register, but I suspect ERRONEOUSLY. Ardington was the place in which the family of Clarkes was settled. Sir Edward Clarke, probably the son of Sir Thomas, was High Sheriff of Berks in 1626 (Marsh).

[34] Halliwell's dictionary gives haydiggle (Somerset) as meaning high spirits, and once a country dance.

[36] From Father Gasquet's essay on the Recusants in The Old English Bible.

[53] Commentaries, vol. ii. p. 83, 8vo.

[54] See Commentaries, as before. N.B. Among the Garrows, a people of Hindostan, the youngest daughter inherits the property of her family. See Asiatic Researches, vol. iii. p. 34, 8vo.

[56] Blackstone's Commentaries, vol. ii. chap. v.

[57a] Blackstone's Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 81, 85.

[57b] Sir Martin Wright is of opinion that Domesday-Book was made soon after our ancestors had agreed to tenures, i.e. the feodal system of tenure, for the purpose of ascertaining each man's fee; and he supposes that as soon as the survey was completed, the great landholders of the kingdom were summoned to London and Sarum to do homage to the king for their landed possessions. Now it may be presumed, that if Merdon had been then surrendered to the king, and any alteration made in the nature of the tenure of the lands in the manor, it would have been reported and registered in the book. But it certainly is not to be found there. May it not then be justly concluded that it was passed over, and that the customs now prevailing are the same as were in use previous to the Conquest?

[58] See Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 48, 81.

[67] This word cannot be understood. It probably may be the name of a holding, or of a family.

[154] Robin Hood's butt, no doubt used for archery practice, lay on this down, called Rough Borrow.


THE END.

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Charlotte M. Yonge

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