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{2} A good example of these Celtic romances is 'The Tain Bo Cualgne.'

{4} The best account of Roman military life in Scotland, from the time of Agricola to the invasion by Lollius Urbicus (140-158 A.D.), may be studied in Mr Curie's 'A Roman Frontier Post and Its People' (Maclehose, Glasgow, 1911). The relics, weapons, arms, pottery, and armour of Roman men, and the ornaments of the native women, are here beautifully reproduced. Dr Macdonald's excellent work, 'The Roman Wall in Scotland' (Maclehose, 1911), is also most interesting and instructive.

{10} For the Claims of Supremacy see Appendix C. to vol. i. of my 'History of Scotland,' pp. 496-499.

{20} Lord Reay, according to the latest book on Scottish peerages, represents these MacHeths or Mackays.

{27} 'Iliad,' xviii. 496-500.

{36} As Waleys was then an English as much as a Scottish name, I see no reason for identifying the William le Waleys, outlawed for bilking a poor woman who kept a beer house (Perth, June-August, 1296), with the great historical hero of Scotland.

{38} See Dr Neilson on "Blind Harry's Wallace," in 'Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association,' p. 85 ff. (Oxford, 1910.)

{52} The precise date is disputed.

{57} By a blunder which Sir James Ramsay corrected, history has accused James of arresting his "whole House of Lords"!

{61} The ballad fragments on the Knight of Liddesdale's slaying, and on "the black dinner," are preserved in Hume of Godscroft's 'History of he House of Douglas,' written early in the seventeenth century.

{67} The works of Messrs Herkless and Hannay on the Bishops of St Andrews may be consulted.

{71} See p. 38, note 1.

{89} Knox gives another account. Our evidence is from a household book of expenses, Liber Emptorum, in MS.

{91} As to the story of forgery, see a full discussion in the author's 'History of Scotland,' i. 460-467. 1900.

{94} There is no proof that this man was the preacher George Wishart, later burned.

{96} A curious controversy is constantly revived in this matter. It is urged that Knox's mobs did not destroy the abbey churches of Kelso, Melrose, Dryburgh, Roxburgh, and Coldingham: that was done by Hertford's army. If so, they merely deprived the Knoxian brethren of the pleasures of destruction which they enjoyed almost everywhere else. The English, if guilty, left at Melrose, Jedburgh, Coldingham, and Kelso more beautiful remains of mediaeval architecture than the Reformers were wont to spare.

{99} This part of our history is usually and erroneously told as given by Knox, writing fifteen years later. He needs to be corrected by the letters and despatches of the day, which prove that the Reformer's memory, though picturesque, had, in the course of fifteen years, become untrustworthy. He is the chief source of the usual version of Solway Moss.

{106} The dates and sequence of events are perplexing. In 'John Knox and the Reformation' (pp. 86-95) I have shown the difficulties.

{111a} The details of these proceedings and the evidence for them may be found in the author's book, 'John Knox and the Reformation,' pp. 135-141. Cf. also my 'History of Scotland,' ii. 58-60.

{111b} See 'Affaires Etrangeres: Angleterre,' xv. 131-153. MS.

{118} Mary's one good portrait is that owned by Lord Leven and Melville.

{129} I have no longer any personal doubt that Mary wrote the lost French original of this letter, usually numbered II. in the Casket Letters (see my paper, "The Casket Letters," in 'The Scottish Historical Review,' vol. v., No. 17, pp. 1-12). The arguments tending to suggest that parts of the letter are forged (see my 'Mystery of Mary Stuart') are (I now believe) unavailing.

{137} I can construe in no other sense the verbose "article." It may be read in Dr Hay Fleming's 'Reformation in Scotland,' pp. 449, 450, with sufficient commentary, pp. 450-453.

{144} It appears that there was both a plot by Lennox, after the Raid of Ruthven, to seize James--"preaching will be of no avail to convert him," his mother wrote; and also an English plot, rejected by Gowrie, to poison both James and Mary! For the former, see Professor Hume Brown, 'History of Scotland,' vol. ii. p. 289; for the latter, see my 'History of Scotland,' vol. ii. pp. 286, 287, with the authorities in each case.

{156} Of these versions, that long lost one which was sent to England has been published for the first time, with the previously unnoticed incident of Robert Oliphant, in the author's 'James VI. and the Gowrie Mystery.' Here it is also demonstrated that all the treasonable letters attributed in 1606-1608 to Logan were forged by Logan's solicitor, George Sprot, though the principal letter seems to me to be a copy of an authentic original. That all, as they stand, are forgeries is the unanimous opinion of experts. See the whole of the documents in the author's 'Confessions of George Sprot.' Roxburghe Club.

{181} Colkitto's men and the Badenoch contingent.

{182} Much has been made of cruelties at Aberdeen. Montrose sent in a drummer, asking the Provost to remove the old men, women, and children. The drummer was shot, as, at Perth, Montrose's friend, Kilpont, had been murdered. The enemy were pursued through the town. Spalding names 115 townsmen slain in the whole battle and pursuit. Women were slain if they were heard to mourn their men--not a very probable story. Not one woman is named. The Burgh Records mention no women slain. Baillie says "the town was well plundered." Jaffray, who fled from the fight as fast as his horse could carry him, says that women and children were slain. See my 'History of Scotland,' vol. iii. pp. 126-128.

{186a} Craig-Brown, 'History of Selkirkshire,' vol. i. pp. 190, 193. 'Act. Parl. Scot.,' vol. vi. pt. i. p. 492.

{186b} 'Act. Parl. Scot.,' vol. vi. pt. i. p. 514.

{187} Hume Brown, vol. ii. p. 339.

{208} The Boot was an old French and Scottish implement. It was a framework into which the human leg was inserted; wedges were then driven between the leg and the framework.

{225} Many disgusting details may be read in the author's 'Life of Sir George Mackenzie.'

{226} Hume Brown, ii. 414, 415.

{250} Dr Hay Fleming finds no mention of this affair in the Minutes of the Societies.

{254a} All this is made clear from the letters of the date in the Stuart Papers (Historical Manuscript Commission).

{254b} In addition to Saint Simon's narrative we have the documentary evidence taken in a French inquiry.

{264} See 'The King over the Water,' by Alice Shield and A. Lang. Thackeray's King James, in 'Esmond,' is very amusing but absolutely false to history.

{265} 'The Porteous Trial,' by Mr Roughead, W.S.

{287} See the author's 'History of Scotland,' iv. 446-500, where the evidence is examined.

{290} 'Register of Decreets,' vol. 482.

{293} Tradition in Glencoe.

Andrew Lang