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music therapy-indian

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Music therapy in Indian perspective As a global theme

Many people ask,which music you prescribe for this disease/For that disease?We cannot prescribe music as we do drugs,and that is the first principle which we have to give our prospective music therapists as well as clients.Others say,it is just a hypnosis or selfhypnosis.What is the difference between thinking about riding a a bicycle or driving a car and actual riding/driving?Unless you put something to practice in the present,no matter how much you think ,it becomes valueless.Unless you drive a car,or ride a bicycle all your thinking about those activities are useless. In his book Music therapy for dementiacare,D.Aldridge 1says,moving as if we are happy we promote happiness,and as if we are sad ,we promote sadness around us.That is,thoughts have an effect on the behaviour,and behaviour on the environment around.Alport’s2 social contagion theory and also gestalt psychology3 prove the same.Just by thinking you may not create any good in the world.But putting that thought into practice you create goodness.My thoughts on music and its outcome music therapy ,as an interdisciplinary approach has to be seen in this light.In a way,each book becomes the autobiographical narrative of the author.Life is a process of education.A holistic,lifelong learning activity,which at the same time is a work or profession,a dialogue ,a service to humanity,and a characterbuilding process.It is not only for an individual,but also for society,nation and the world,that a person thinks and does his dharma.This activity generates culture and values.Culture is a growth for a microbiologist .There are three levels of culture or growth.4
1.The most superficial,that give identity to a person,to a people.Makes them distinct from others.Dress,food,festivals,rituals on birth,death,marriage,external behaviour,social etiquettes and interactions.these can change with time or can continue.
2.The second level is the architecture,the music,dance,literature,arts,crafts,planning,organi zation of life which defines a person’s abilities,and a people’s growth .
3.Third ,the deepest ,often misunderstood,or not understood at all,is the level of meanings of these second level and first level,which is called meaning of philosophy,meaning of music or philosophy of music etc.This ia at the level of spirituality.In I ndia these are associated with Bhoothadaya(karuna or Pathos),vidya (wisdom/education),transcendental levels of consciousness(pragna,pratyabhigna).Music therapy spans over these three spheres of culture.It is part of everyday life,of festivals and rituals(level 1),the level of musical development and its interconnectedness with other branches of art and science of India shows the second level(as part of indianness,or nationality,cultural heritage,and unifying principle of our country),and finally when we go to deeper realms it is the divine Naadabrahma,taking us to the beginning of time,and to timelessness in a cyclical spiral,touching spiritual depths of our self,and the universe.India always have a global perspective when she says”Loka samastha sukhino Bhavanthu”.

An idea of an Indian foundation of Raagachikitsa with a global perspective is essential for achievement of the desired results in quality control..The need of a national and international global perspective is to

1 check unauthorized therapists
2 without licensing from the state and the nation and without knowing what is happening in the world music therapy forums ,practicing the discipline at individual levels can be harmful to the discipline in the long run.
3. People without awareness of the professional ethics and medical implications can complicate the issues
4.Hospitals/doctors without knowledge of the traditional Indian music and its healing properties may read articles coming in the world forum and introduce western music (not western classical)which can be detrimental to the patients .
5.The most important aim is to introduce humanity into the field of medical science,and science into the field of art of music.Introduction of modern scientific methods of investigation into the art of musicology will provide a common platform for artists and scientists to cultivate fruitful relationships ,which is good for the nation and the world,in the long run.
The focus should be on
1.Clinical practice
2.Music therapy methods
3.research and development
4.professional issues.
In the Liepzig 2005 neurosciences music conference ,it was decided that research models should focus on needs.The dilemma raised in the conference was,
1.EBM(Evidence based medicine)insists on references in a recognized journal before a research paper is taken as acceptable.
2.In an infant science like Music therapy,if the case histories are not faithfully recorded,and shared between practicing therapists how can we create EBM?
3.If the researchers do not create EBM by their own clinical trials ,experiments but clinicians see an improvement in their client’s physical,mental (not to say anything about intellectul and spiritual)faculties,and happiness in the faces of the relatives which one should be considered more important?
4.Is not the satisfaction /happiness /improvement in individual patients /relatives worthy of consideration as evidence?
The contribution of we,Indians ,to this global thought is what I mean by the title of the chapter,Music therapy in an Indian perspective as a global theme.
Many of the research activities of the institutions and academies have become passive and the funds that go into the research do not bring the expected results to the society.This is not only in India but also in the united states of America.To overcome this passiveness of this research process ,the research has to be changed into an active transformative process involving the entire society rather than restricting it to one institution alone.There is limitation of studying a complex real social situation or event within the four walls of the laboratory and for overcoming this Curt Levin introduced the term active research.Active research in music therapy involves
1.State a problem situation
2.Establish roles for musicians,therapists,clinicians,laboratory staff etc etc.
3Declare the methodologies
4.Describe the existing theory and practice
5.Do a pilot project to prove
6.Give awareness of the new programme including workshops,seminars to various concerned groups
7.Rethinking and taking part in the changing process.
If the problem is solved the social research ends.If not,it continues,and we will have to reflect upon the experiences gained so far,record all our learnings/thought processes on the problem subject ,in relation to the methodology ,framework of ideas,areas of concern etc .
There is an endpoint for a clinical research .But for a social research the endpoint is only a temporary one for rethinking and the process continues.

ENGRAM –MEMORY TRACE
You can assess yourself or others(writers/speakers/singers)from the words they use,the music they choose to communicate.Engram means whatever is in the organism,which accounts for his/her memory,presumably some structural change in the brain- memory,intelligence ,learning behaviour,dreams and aspirations,all included.RNA molecules are repository of the past activity related to experience.A quantitative change in the RNA and synthesis of new proteins happen during learning.Children,even the mentally retarded ones have a memory or a detailed pictur e of a scene or experience.A dejau experience or”I have seen this place before”feeling or a dejau entendu (I have heard this voice before feeling)or a tip of the toungue feeling ,relearning a forgotten poem /music etc are all part of eidectic memory.Dream memories and creativity are interconnected.Many musicians,mathematicians and scientists have created their works from altered states of consciousness and dream visions.Then how can we separate art and science?How to separate subjective from objective?For the materialists the human brain,neurons,neuronal peptides ,for the astrophysicists soundwave and light particles,and energy which is matter itself,for aestheticians , Naadabrahma,for atheists nature and for theists God,is the cause of these visions and the experiences.This subjectivity of explanation of the same experience and the attitude that “Iam right ,You are wrong”6has created lot of problems in society.The fact is that the experience/visions are the same,only the explanations differ.Hence the experience ,vision is objective and the explanations (even that of science)is subjective.Once we recognize this,the differences disappear,and unity establishes itself.In the twilight language of a yogi/Zen/Charaka/,Advaithin/musician explanations are similar but their languages differ.Readeroeiented or listener oriented theories of Rasa in language,literature and music gives more meaningful expressions to what is said or sung by the author/singer.Therefore,the communication process between two people and the transformation is the total effect of literature and music.And naturally raagachikitsa ,is not just another method of treatment ,but a universal communication for integration of souls ,national integration and world peace.Hospital practice is only a part of it.

1.It is a transformative research
2.For society,nation and world for a peaceful coexistence
3.for alleviation of pain(physical,mental,intellectual,spiritual pain)
4.educative tool for children-normal and mentally handicapped
5.research tool for analytical and creative music therapy for betterment of life on earth
6.As a branch of narrative and family medicine and hospitalbased practice also it is used for collection of data and further development of the discipline. 7.There are three levels of educational vision possible.Cosmic consciousness,Human consciousness,personal (life disciplines).Of these personal consciousness can be of four types.
1.personal nonreflective
2.Emergent (survival)
3.critical and
4.visionary.8.
when we plan a curriculum it should integrate social sciences and medical science with anthropological and health psychological considerations9

Quite unlike the classical Newtonian research ,quantum research is nonlinear ,creative,holistic,acausal,nonhierarchic with no subject/object split and it is evolutionary in nature.Systematic research should touch four areas.

1 Philosophical:Analysis ,criticisms,speculations and comparisons come under this.
2.Historical.Reviews,surveys,,,past information available on the subject are historical in nature.
3.Descriptive.The current status of the profession,case studies,descriptions of work,training programmes,etc fall under this category.
4.Experimental.Results of structured research and presentation of future research plans etc .

As far as possible I have made it a point to touch all these points in this book.
A few useful hints for the prospective music therapists who want to follow the profession:
1.Make it a point to obtain an informed consent (preferably in two languages,one in the patient’s mother toungue)
2.Each institution should have their protocol,proforma,assessment charts, time limit set,evaluation strategy,beforehand and statistics and discussion ,analysis afterwards.
3.Have controls along with clients.
4.Open mind of assessment needed.
5.Evaluations pre,during and post music intervention is to be done.
6Assessment can be summative or formative
SUMMATIVE FORMATIVE
1.To show students are fit to go to the next stage of training.A formal requirement.Results to be recorded.2.To gain degree.Requirements A.specify the early level prerequisites.There is no need for a written exam or multiple choice questions.But a pass in al the special study modules are neededB.acceptable record of attendence of teaching/learning activities like problembased tutorials.Communication and clinical skill coursesSpecified practical/clinical workProject workDissertation. 1.To enable student to judge how well they do at each stage of course and identify any weak point to be corrected.No formal record need be kept of the results2MethodsA.Informal and ongoingB.more formal assessment
Informal ongoing assessment:
1.Feedback from PBL group and teacher
2Guidance from teachers on communication,clinical skill courses
3.Completion of selfassessment questions.These give guidance on both the breadth and depth that directed selflearning should take at each stage of the course.
Formal formative assessment:
1.progress test(mock examinations)which take the same form of summative tests.These give experience of the examination format,in addition to information in progress.Progress test done at end of each semesterunless there is a summation assessment at the same time.Participation is compulsory but marks are not kept as part of the formal record.

This is necessary for monitoring the quality control of music therapy .According to the central council of Indian medical act,1970,Alternative medicine is acknowledged as a certified course,and therapy practice,but so far,there is no proper course on music therapy,though there are several music colleges.My book aims at recommending the Government both at national and state levels to look into this very urgent matter.Hence,a detailed prospective curriculum is drawn out ,after verifying the feasibility of the treatment,and a course in the new discipline,using Indian music.The concept of a medical uty for kerala,on the basis of MUSC and the concept of Indian universities for nationbuilding by10 R.P.Singh is utilized for formulating a final picture of my project .Other references which were useful include,11WFMT education symposium,12AMTA website,13Florida state university educational programmes.and qualitative and quantitative perspective on Music therapy.

Ref 1.D.Aldridge.Music therapy in Dementia care.Jessica Kingsley publications.2000
2.Alport’s social contagion theory
3.Gestalt psychology pp320,649-650,656, Ref no:5 Introduction to psychology ed Leonard Charmichael.3rd ed.1969.
4.Transformative learning.Educational vision for 21st century.Edward O ‘Sullivan .uty of Toronto press.Zed books.1999 vision for curriculum pp 198-201.
5.Engram.,memory trace or neurogram.Ch 10.Remembering and forgetting.pp264-265.Introduction to Psychology.Norman .L Munn ,L.Dodge Fernald,ed .Leonard Charmichael. 3RD Edition Oxford IBH . 1969
6. I am right ,You are wrong.. Dr Edward de Bono.Penguin books 1991.
7. (Nicholas Walliman.Your research project 2nd edition .Vistar publications New Delhi 2005
8. (Transformative learning .Educational vision for 21st century .Edmond .O.Sullivan uty of Toronto press Zed books 1999.pp 198-201 vision for curriculum
9. .(culture and health A critical perspective towards global health Sec ed .Malcolm .Mac Lachton .John Wiley sons Ltd 2001)
10 concept of Indian universities for nationbuilding by10 R.P.Singh
11WFMT education symposium.November 1999.Washington DC,New developments in music therapy.Barbera Hesser.MA,CMT,New york city.
12AMTA website.
13.Florida state university educational programmes.
14.Wheeler B.Music therapy research .quantitative and qualitative perspectives.PA. Barcelona publishers
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