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Chapter 4


In presence of the fact of the barricade of the Faubourg St. Antoine so
heroically constructed by the Representatives, so sadly neglected by the
populace, the last illusions, even mine, should have been dispersed.
Baudin killed, the Faubourg cold. Such things spoke aloud. It was a
supreme, manifest, absolute demonstration of that fact, the inaction of
the people, to which I could not resign myself--a deplorable inaction,
if they understood, a self-treason, if they did not understand, a fatal
neutrality in every case, a calamity of which all the responsibility, we
repeat, recoiled not upon the people but upon those who in June, 1848,
after having promised them amnesty, had refused it, and who had unhinged
the great soul of the people of Paris by breaking faith with them. What
the Constituent Assembly had sown the Legislative Assembly harvested.
We, innocent of the fault, had to submit to the consequence.

The spark which we had seen flash for an instant through the
crowd--Michel de Bourges from the height of Bonvalet's balcony, myself
from the Boulevard du Temple--this spark seemed extinguished. Maigne
firstly, then Brillier, then Bruckner, later on Charmaule, Madier de
Montjau, Bastide, and Dulac came to report to us what had passed at the
barricade of St. Antoine, the motives which had decided the
Representatives present not to await the hour appointed for the
rendezvous, and Baudin's death. The report which I made myself of what I
had seen, and which Cassal and Alexander Rey completed by adding new
circumstances, enabled us to ascertain the situation. The Committee could
no longer hesitate: I myself renounced the hopes which I had based upon a
grand manifestation, upon a powerful reply to the _coup d'état_, upon a
sort of pitched battle waged by the guardians of the Republic against the
banditti of the Elysée. The Faubourgs failed us; we possessed the
lever--Right, but the mass to be raised, the People, we did not possess.
There was nothing more to hope for, as those two great orators, Michel de
Bourges and Jules Favre, with their keen political perception, had
declared from the first, save a slow long struggle, avoiding decisive
engagements, changing quarters, keeping Paris on the alert, saying to
each, It is not at an end; leaving time for the departments to prepare
their resistance, wearying the troops out, and in which struggle the
Parisian people, who do not long smell powder with impunity, would
perhaps ultimately take fire. Barricades raised everywhere, barely
defended, re-made immediately, disappearing and multiplying themselves at
the same time, such was the strategy indicated by the situation. The
Committee adopted it, and sent orders in every direction to this effect.
At that moment we were sitting at No. 15, Rue Richelieu, at the house of
our colleague Grévy, who had been arrested in the Tenth Arrondissement on
the preceding day, who was at Mazas. His brother had offered us his house
for our deliberations. The Representatives, our natural emissaries,
flocked around us, and scattered themselves throughout Paris, with our
instructions to organize resistance at every point. They were the arms
and the Committee was the soul. A certain number of ex-Constituents,
intrepid men, Garnier-Pagès, Marie, Martin (de Strasbourg), Senart,
formerly President of the Constituent Assembly, Bastide, Laissac,
Landrin, had joined the Representatives on the preceding day. They
established, therefore, in all the districts where it was possible
Committees of Permanence in connection with us, the Central Committee,
and composed either of Representatives or of faithful citizens. For our
watchword we chose "Baudin."

Towards noon the centre of Paris began to grow agitated.

Our appeal to arms was first seen placarded on the Place de la Bourse
and the Rue Montmartre. Groups pressed round to read it, and battled
with the police, who endeavored to tear down the bills. Other
lithographic placards contained in two parallel columns the decree of
deposition drawn up by the Right at the Mairie of the Tenth
Arrondissement, and the decree of outlawry voted by the Left. There were
distributed, printed on gray paper in large type, the judgment of the
High Court of Justice, declaring Louis Bonaparte attainted with the
Crime of High Treason, and signed "Hardouin" (President), "Delapalme,"
"Moreau" (of the Seine), "Cauchy," "Bataille" (Judges). This last name
was thus mis-spelt by mistake, it should read "Pataille."

At that moment people generally believed, and we ourselves believed, in
this judgment, which, as we have seen, was not the genuine judgment.

At the same time they posted in the populous quarters, at the corner of
every street, two Proclamations. The first ran thus:--



"The Constitution is confided to the keeping and to the patriotism of
French citizens. Louis NAPOLEON is outlawed.

"The State of Siege is abolished.

"Universal suffrage is re-established.



"For the United Mountain.

"The Delegate, VICTOR HUGO."

The second ran thus:--


"The National Guards and the People of the Departments are marching on
Paris to aid you in seizing the TRAITOR, Louis Napoléon BONAPARTE.

"For the Representatives of the People,

"VICTOR HUGO, President.

"SCHOELCHER, Secretary."

This last placard, printed on little squares of paper, was distributed
abroad, says an historian of the _coup d'état_, by thousands of copies.

For their part the criminals installed in the Government offices replied
by threats: the great white placards, that is to say, the official
bills, were largely multiplied. On one could be read:--


"Decree as follows:--

"ARTICLE I. All meetings are rigorously prohibited. They will be
immediately dispersed by force.

"ARTICLE II. All seditious shouts, all reading in public, all posting
of political documents not emanating from a regularly constituted
authority, are equally prohibited.

"ARTICLE III. The agents of the Public Police will enforce the execution
of the present decree.

"Given at the Prefecture of Police, December 3, 1851.

"DE MAUPAS, Prefect of Police.

"Seen and approved,

"DE MORNY, Minister of the Interior."

On another could be read,--


"By virtue of the Law on the State of Siege,


"Every person taken constructing or defending a barricade, or carrying

"General of Division,

"Minister of war,


We reproduce this Proclamation exactly, even to the punctuation. The
words "Will be shot" were in capital letters in the placards signed "De

The Boulevards were thronged with an excited crowd. The agitation
increasing in the centre reached three Arrondissements, the 6th, 7th,
and the 12th. The district of the schools began to disorderly. The
Students of Law and of Medicine cheered De Flotte on the Place de
Panthéon. Madier de Montjau, ardent and eloquent, went through and
aroused Belleville. The troops, growing more numerous every moment,
took possession of all the strategical points of Paris.

At one o'clock, a young man was brought to us by the legal adviser of
the Workmen's Societies, the ex-Constituent Leblond, at whose house the
Committee had deliberated that morning. We were sitting in permanence,
Carnot, Jules Favre, Michel de Bourges, and myself. This young man, who
had an earnest mode of speaking and an intelligent countenance, was
named King. He had been sent to us by the Committee of the Workmen's
Society, from whom he was delegated. "The Workmen's Societies," he said
to us, "place themselves at the disposal of the Committee of Legal
Insurrection appointed by the Left. They can throw into the struggle
five or six thousand resolute men. They will manufacture powder; as for
guns, they will be found." The Workmen's Society requested from us an
order to fight signed by us. Jules Favre took a pen and wrote,--"The
undersigned Representatives authorize Citizen King and his friends to
defend with them, and with arms in their hands, Universal Suffrage, the
Republic, the Laws." He dated it, and we all four signed it. "That is
enough," said the delegate to us, "you will hear of us."

Two hours afterwards it was reported to us that the conflict had begun.
They were fighting in the Rue Aumaire.

[10] A typographical error--it should read "Article LXVIII." On the
subject of this placard the author of this book received the following
letter. It does honor to those who wrote it:--

"CITIZEN VICTOR HUGO,--We know that you have made an appeal to arms. We
have not been able to obtain it. We replace it by these bills which we
sign with your name. You will not disown us. When France is in danger
your name belongs to all; your name is a Public Power.



Victor Hugo