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Thread: Two Republics in China

  1. #46
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    Soon some suspicious men were found lurking outside the house. The meeting broke up and everyone discretely slipped away. And the next day, they met on a boat on the South Lake in Jiaxing Town, casually playing mahjong while in fact continuing their meeting. Thus the Communist Party of China was established. At that time it had only 50 members.
    On the 23rd of December, 1921, accompanied by an interpreter, Malin went to see Sun Yat-sen in Guilin City of Guangxi province. He stayed there for nine days and concluded that Communist Party members could join the National Party while still maintaining their status in the Communist Party. This would help the Communist Party to develop. But his idea was strongly opposed by some party members, especially Chen Duxiu who was then the leader of the party. So on the 23rd of April, 1922, Malin left Shanghai for Holland, by sea, and then, through Berlin, made it to Moscow. He reported his work in China to the Soviet Communist Party, which consented to his idea. On the 27th of July, the Soviet Union sent a representative to China, together with Malin, with instructions. Malin typed the instructions on the shirt he wore. In Shanghai, Malin met Chen Duxiu and gave him his shirt.
    Chen Duxiu had to obey the decision of the Communist International because at the second meeting of the Communist Party, held from July 16–23, 1922, at 625 South Chengdu Road in Shanghai, they had decided to join the Communist International. Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao attended the meeting with ten other representatives. Then the Communist Party of China got financial aid from the Communist International.
    On the 29th and 30th of August, 1922, the Communist Party of China (CPC) held a central meeting on the West Lake in Hangzhou City and decided to found the First United Front, an alliance between the National Party and the Communist Party.

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    In June 1923, the Communist Party had its third meeting in Canton, and 40 representatives, representing 420 party members, discussed the issue of the First United Front. They elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao (1889–1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (1898–1941, who later became commander of the New 4th Army in the Sino–Japanese War), and five others, as members of the Central Committee.
    It was said that after the meeting, at the urging of the Communist Party, Sun Yat-sen proposed his three great policies: Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with the Communist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as a matter of fact, Sun never identified with such policies. This was just invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor to the Communist Party of China, to make them look good. Then the Communist Party used this invention as a fact for its own purposes.
    Why did Sun agree to the United Front notion? It was because Sun always held to his ideal of Three Principles for the People: the Principle of Nationalism, the Principle of Democracy, and the Principle of People’s Livelihood. Ironically, this party, which was also called Kuomintang by the pronunciations of the Chinese characters “National Party,” evolved into a highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarian party. Sun thought that the ideal of communism was closest to his three principles and so he wanted to unite with the Communist Party against their common enemies—warlords who were still taking advantage of the power void left when the imperial order crumbled.
    From the 20th to the 30th of January, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party held their first conference in Canton (now Guangzhou). Sun was the chairman and the Russian counselor Borodin was in attendance. Some Communist Party members were elected into the executive committee of the National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were members and Mao Zedong, Zhang Guotao were alternate members.

  3. #48
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    In June 1923, the Communist Party had its third meeting in Canton, and 40 representatives, representing 420 party members, discussed the issue of the First United Front. They elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao (1889–1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (1898–1941, who later became commander of the New 4th Army in the Sino–Japanese War), and five others, as members of the Central Committee.
    It was said that after the meeting, at the urging of the Communist Party, Sun Yat-sen proposed his three great policies: Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with the Communist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as a matter of fact, Sun never identified with such policies. This was just invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor to the Communist Party of China, to make them look good. Then the Communist Party used this invention as a fact for its own purposes.
    Why did Sun agree to the United Front notion? It was because Sun always held to his ideal of Three Principles for the People: the Principle of Nationalism, the Principle of Democracy, and the Principle of People’s Livelihood. Ironically, this party, which was also called Kuomintang by the pronunciations of the Chinese characters “National Party,” evolved into a highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarian party. Sun thought that the ideal of communism was closest to his three principles and so he wanted to unite with the Communist Party against their common enemies—warlords who were still taking advantage of the power void left when the imperial order crumbled.
    From the 20th to the 30th of January, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party held their first conference in Canton (now Guangzhou). Sun was the chairman and the Russian counselor Borodin was in attendance. Some Communist Party members were elected into the executive committee of the National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were members and Mao Zedong, Zhang Guotao were alternate members.

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    In the autumn of 1924, General Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948) launched a coup d’état and took control of the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking to discuss national affairs. In the morning of November 5, Feng sent his troops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicated emperor to move out. So Henry gathered his precious belongings and moved to Tianjin City with his family. A few faithful old courtiers followed him there.
    On November 13, 1924, Sun Yat-sen started from Canton and arrived in Peking on the 31st of December. It was soon found that he was suffering from liver cancer and he died on March 12, 1925. Sun had been in Peking three times. First, in 1894, he went to Peking with the intention of advising the Qing officials on how it might reform the government. But when he saw how serious the corruption was, he realized that no reform could be enough to save China. So he decided to make a revolution. His second visit was in 1912 when the Republic of China was founded. He went to Peking to advise Yuan Shikai that if Yuan could carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporary presidency. This was his third time.
    On the 15th of September, Zhang Zuolin came with his forces from the northeastern provinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battle broke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu’s army was put to rout and Wu escaped south to Hunan and Hubei provinces. Thereafter, Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backed by Japan.

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    In the autumn of 1924, General Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948) launched a coup d’état and took control of the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking to discuss national affairs. In the morning of November 5, Feng sent his troops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicated emperor to move out. So Henry gathered his precious belongings and moved to Tianjin City with his family. A few faithful old courtiers followed him there.
    On November 13, 1924, Sun Yat-sen started from Canton and arrived in Peking on the 31st of December. It was soon found that he was suffering from liver cancer and he died on March 12, 1925. Sun had been in Peking three times. First, in 1894, he went to Peking with the intention of advising the Qing officials on how it might reform the government. But when he saw how serious the corruption was, he realized that no reform could be enough to save China. So he decided to make a revolution. His second visit was in 1912 when the Republic of China was founded. He went to Peking to advise Yuan Shikai that if Yuan could carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporary presidency. This was his third time.
    On the 15th of September, Zhang Zuolin came with his forces from the northeastern provinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battle broke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu’s army was put to rout and Wu escaped south to Hunan and Hubei provinces. Thereafter, Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backed by Japan.

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    Whampoa military academy
    The Whampoa Military Academy was founded on the 16th of June, 1924, on the instruction of Sun Yat-sen, to train officers for the Revolutionary Army. It was situated on Changzhou Island in the Whampoa District of Canton. Afterwards, branches were founded in Wuhan, Changsha, Chaoshan, and Nanning cities. In preparation for the establishment of this academy, Sun had sent Chiang Kai-shek to the Soviet Union in September of 1923 to learn from their experience. So the academy was modeled after those in the Soviet Union. And Chiang Kai-shek was appointed President of the academy. Quite a few Communist Party (CPC) members were appointed leaders of departments, such as Ye Jianying (1897–1986), deputy director of the training department, and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), deputy director of the political department.
    In May of 1924, the academy began to take in students. Out of 1200 applicants, 350 students were enrolled and 120 were accepted as alternate students for the first term. In 1927, the academy was relocated in Nanking and renamed the Central Army Officer Academy. Later, in 1949, it moved to Taiwan, for reasons that will become apparent later. From 1924 to 1949, there were 23 terms, and including the terms held in Taiwan, the academy was functioning for 78 terms. The academy graduated 41,386 students, including many famous generals.

  7. #52
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    Whampoa military academy
    The Whampoa Military Academy was founded on the 16th of June, 1924, on the instruction of Sun Yat-sen, to train officers for the Revolutionary Army. It was situated on Changzhou Island in the Whampoa District of Canton. Afterwards, branches were founded in Wuhan, Changsha, Chaoshan, and Nanning cities. In preparation for the establishment of this academy, Sun had sent Chiang Kai-shek to the Soviet Union in September of 1923 to learn from their experience. So the academy was modeled after those in the Soviet Union. And Chiang Kai-shek was appointed President of the academy. Quite a few Communist Party (CPC) members were appointed leaders of departments, such as Ye Jianying (1897–1986), deputy director of the training department, and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), deputy director of the political department.
    In May of 1924, the academy began to take in students. Out of 1200 applicants, 350 students were enrolled and 120 were accepted as alternate students for the first term. In 1927, the academy was relocated in Nanking and renamed the Central Army Officer Academy. Later, in 1949, it moved to Taiwan, for reasons that will become apparent later. From 1924 to 1949, there were 23 terms, and including the terms held in Taiwan, the academy was functioning for 78 terms. The academy graduated 41,386 students, including many famous generals.

  8. #53
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    The Break-Up of the National Party and the Communist Party
    After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek took the full command of the Revolutionary Army. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek had no confidence in the CPC, especially after their fourth conference.
    That fourth conference of the Communist Party was held from the 11th to the 22nd of January, 1925, with 20 representatives gathered in Shanghai. Chen Duxiu, Zhang Guotao, Zhou Enlai, and Xiang Ying, and many others attended. Chen was the chairman. During the conference, Chen was elected the general secretary of the central bureau, consisting of five persons. They decided that the Communist Party had to take charge of the revolution, and that laid the ground for major disruptions.
    On the 20th of March, 1926, the warship Yat-sen planned an artillery attack on the Whanpoa Military Academy to drive away Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang gave orders to arrest the captain, Li Zhilong, a member of the Communist Party. Then Chiang ordered Zhou Enlai and all their party members to get out of the academy. The students now faced a problem as to which party they would follow. One student quit the National Party and 39 students quit the Communist Party. The others remained in the academy.
    Meanwhile within the National Party, Wang Jingwei (1883–1944, who later treacherously went over to the Japanese during the Sino–Japanese War) wanted to take over the leadership of the National Party. He organized another government in Wuhan City, close to Wuchang City, the cradle of the 1911 revolution, and held the third conference of the National Party without the attendance of Chiang. This was called Wuhan government.
    At that time Chiang only had command of the Revolution Army and held no position in the government. The Wuhan government wanted Chiang to continue to the north to wipe out the warlords there. But Chiang planned to go east to occupy the eastern provinces first, including Shanghai, because those eastern provinces were also under the control of warlords.
    During those years, the land problem was serious. Peasants wanted to have their own land so that they would not be exploited by landowners. When peasants worked land owned by those in the ownership class, they had to give part of the harvest to the landowners, as in any feudal system. As the imperial system had been demolished, they wanted land reforms too. Under instigation by the Communist Party, they began to demand this more and more aggressively.

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    Stalin, head of the Soviet Union, asked the Communist Party of China in October of 1926 to curb the action of peasants, to reduce the violence. In March of 1927, the Communist Party established legal penalties for landowners. Any landowners who resisted the revolution would be put to death.
    On the 2nd of April, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held a meeting in Wuhan, inviting two members of the Communist Party, one of whom was Mao Zedong. They were considering a bill about the land problem. The government would confiscate the land of “reactionaries” (those who preferred the old ways as opposed to the revolution) such as property owners, officials who had a stake in the old system, and warlords. The definition of reactionary landowners was to be based on the amount of land they owned, measured by the mu (about 0.165 acres). Anyone who had more than 30 mus, about 5 acres, was dubbed a reactionary. All landowners would be classified into rich peasants, small and middle landowners, and large landowners, according to the amount of terrain they possessed. This standard was still used in the land reform when the Communist Party later established their republic.
    On the 22nd of April, when this bill was under discussion, the National Party and the CPC had different opinions. That was one of the reasons for their falling out, because many members of the National Party came from families who owned land. Then on the 26th of April, Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao were invited to attend the meeting, and also Borodin, the Russian counselor. On the 6th of May, the bill was at last passed. Only the large landowners would see their land confiscated. The land belonging to small landowners and families of revolutionary officials would remain the same. However, once the peasants had been instigated, it was hard to check their zeal to take possession of the land.

  10. #55
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    Stalin, head of the Soviet Union, asked the Communist Party of China in October of 1926 to curb the action of peasants, to reduce the violence. In March of 1927, the Communist Party established legal penalties for landowners. Any landowners who resisted the revolution would be put to death.
    On the 2nd of April, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held a meeting in Wuhan, inviting two members of the Communist Party, one of whom was Mao Zedong. They were considering a bill about the land problem. The government would confiscate the land of “reactionaries” (those who preferred the old ways as opposed to the revolution) such as property owners, officials who had a stake in the old system, and warlords. The definition of reactionary landowners was to be based on the amount of land they owned, measured by the mu (about 0.165 acres). Anyone who had more than 30 mus, about 5 acres, was dubbed a reactionary. All landowners would be classified into rich peasants, small and middle landowners, and large landowners, according to the amount of terrain they possessed. This standard was still used in the land reform when the Communist Party later established their republic.
    On the 22nd of April, when this bill was under discussion, the National Party and the CPC had different opinions. That was one of the reasons for their falling out, because many members of the National Party came from families who owned land. Then on the 26th of April, Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao were invited to attend the meeting, and also Borodin, the Russian counselor. On the 6th of May, the bill was at last passed. Only the large landowners would see their land confiscated. The land belonging to small landowners and families of revolutionary officials would remain the same. However, once the peasants had been instigated, it was hard to check their zeal to take possession of the land.

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    Victory of the Revolutionary Army and the final break between the two parties
    In July of 1926, the National Party decided that the Revolutionary Army should head north to annihilate the warlords there. As Chiang was the commander-in-chief, he led the army north, fighting all the way along the route. The plan was for the Revolutionary Army to attack Wu Peifu first, and then Sun Chuanfang, occupying Jiangxi, Fujian, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, five provinces. Finally the Revolutionary Army would attack Zhang Zuolin in Peking.
    In August of 1926, the Revolutionary Army assaulted the main force of Wu Peifu and wiped it out; they took over Wuchang city on the 10th of September. In November, the Revolutionary Army annihilated the main force of Sun Chuanfang, another warlord, and occupied Jiujiang and Nanchang cities. At the same time, Feng Yuxiang gained control of the northwestern region of China. A warlord, Yan Xishan (1883–1960), ruled Shanxi province. Observing the rapid advance of the Revolutionary Army, both Feng and Yan joined it. Now only the warlord Zhang from the northeastern provinces remained in Peking.
    In October, the Communist Party organized workers in Shanghai to rise to arms against the warlord government 675 miles north in Peking, but they failed. In November, the Revolutionary Army took control of the area of the Yangtze River. So the national Government decided to establish its capital in Wuhan City, but Chiang wanted the capital in Nanchang, which was then under his control. Anyway, on the 9th of December, the national Government moved to Wuhan City.
    On the 21st of February, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held a meeting of the 80 members, one third belonged to the Communist Party and one third were communist-leaning. Among the leaders of all the departments of the National Party, half of them were members of the Communist Party. This meant that the CPC controlled the national Party. And the Communist Party was organizing its own army.
    Chiang Kai-shek decided he had to found another government. He had many supporters, like the brothers Chen Guofu (1892–1951) and Chen Lifu (1900–2001) and others in his army. All were young men.
    On the 19th of February, General Bai Chongxi (1893–1966) took over Hangzhou city as he marched east with his detachment of the Revolutionary Army. On the 22nd, the Communist Party fomented a second riot in Shanghai but failed once more. On the 10th of March, the Central Committee of the National Party had another meeting to openly declare their break with Chiang, and he cut off all relations with the Communist Party.

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    Victory of the Revolutionary Army and the final break between the two parties
    In July of 1926, the National Party decided that the Revolutionary Army should head north to annihilate the warlords there. As Chiang was the commander-in-chief, he led the army north, fighting all the way along the route. The plan was for the Revolutionary Army to attack Wu Peifu first, and then Sun Chuanfang, occupying Jiangxi, Fujian, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, five provinces. Finally the Revolutionary Army would attack Zhang Zuolin in Peking.
    In August of 1926, the Revolutionary Army assaulted the main force of Wu Peifu and wiped it out; they took over Wuchang city on the 10th of September. In November, the Revolutionary Army annihilated the main force of Sun Chuanfang, another warlord, and occupied Jiujiang and Nanchang cities. At the same time, Feng Yuxiang gained control of the northwestern region of China. A warlord, Yan Xishan (1883–1960), ruled Shanxi province. Observing the rapid advance of the Revolutionary Army, both Feng and Yan joined it. Now only the warlord Zhang from the northeastern provinces remained in Peking.
    In October, the Communist Party organized workers in Shanghai to rise to arms against the warlord government 675 miles north in Peking, but they failed. In November, the Revolutionary Army took control of the area of the Yangtze River. So the national Government decided to establish its capital in Wuhan City, but Chiang wanted the capital in Nanchang, which was then under his control. Anyway, on the 9th of December, the national Government moved to Wuhan City.
    On the 21st of February, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held a meeting of the 80 members, one third belonged to the Communist Party and one third were communist-leaning. Among the leaders of all the departments of the National Party, half of them were members of the Communist Party. This meant that the CPC controlled the national Party. And the Communist Party was organizing its own army.
    Chiang Kai-shek decided he had to found another government. He had many supporters, like the brothers Chen Guofu (1892–1951) and Chen Lifu (1900–2001) and others in his army. All were young men.
    On the 19th of February, General Bai Chongxi (1893–1966) took over Hangzhou city as he marched east with his detachment of the Revolutionary Army. On the 22nd, the Communist Party fomented a second riot in Shanghai but failed once more. On the 10th of March, the Central Committee of the National Party had another meeting to openly declare their break with Chiang, and he cut off all relations with the Communist Party.

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    Then Wang Jingwei came back from France, where he attended classes in the University of Lyon and reorganized the National Party by expelling the Russian counselor and members of the Communist Party. He also suggested that the national government and the headquarters of the National Party be moved to Nanking.
    On the 22nd of March, the east detachment of the Revolutionary Army under Bai Chongxi entered Shanghai. On the 24th, the middle detachment occupied Nanking. A few members of the Communist Party instigated the soldiers of the Revolutionary Army to rob and kill foreigners in order to incite foreign governments to take action against the national government. But the consuls of England, the United States and Japan had evidence that the Communist Party was responsible for the trouble.
    On the fifth of April, the Central Committee of the National Party divided the Revolutionary Army into two military blocs. Chiang was re-appointed the commander-in-chief of the first military bloc and Feng Yuxiang was the commander-in-chief of the second. On the same day, Chiang contacted the heads of certain mafias in Shanghai and asked them to organize a Shanghai business guild to oppose the Shanghai workers’ general union, an armed group which was controlled by the Communist Party.
    Meantime, Borodin secretly urged General Guo Songling under the warlord government to fight Zhang Zuolin, who had secret contacts with Chiang. On the 6th of April, Zhang suddenly attacked the embassy of the Soviet Union in Peking to arrest 58 members of the Communist Party hiding there, including Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the Communist Party. They found secret documents which proved that the Soviet Union instructed the Communist Party to overthrow the Chinese government. On the 12th of April, Chiang sent the national 26th army to the Shanghai workers’ general union to order them to surrender their weapons. But they refused, and many people were killed in the conflict, which became known as the 4/12 event. Then Chiang ordered all the organizations controlled by the Communist Party to disband.
    On the 17th of April, Chiang and other members of the Central Committee of the National Party met in Nanking to issue warrant for the arrest of 197 leading members of the Communist Party, including Borodin, Chen Duxiu, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969), Zhang Guotao, Deng Yingchao (1904–1992, wife of Zhou Enlai), and others. On the 28th, Li Dazhao and others were hanged in Peking, accused of plotting to overthrow the government.
    On the 20th of April, the Communist Party issued a statement saying that Chiang was the open foe of the revolutionary people and called upon the people to overthrow him. On the 22nd day, Wang Jingwei and other members of the National Party who supported the Communist Party, together with Mao Zedong and some Communist Party members, openly blamed Chiang for the disruption. Chiang founded the national government in Nanking in opposition to the government in Wuhan City.
    On the fifth of June when Indian revolutionary M.N. Roy, a representative of the Communist International, asked Wang Jingwei to allow the Communist Party to control the Wuhan government, Wang began to disband the Communist Party. Therefore, on the 1st of August, the Communist Party called for riots in Nanchang. That marked the final rupture between the National Party and the Communist Party.

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    Then Wang Jingwei came back from France, where he attended classes in the University of Lyon and reorganized the National Party by expelling the Russian counselor and members of the Communist Party. He also suggested that the national government and the headquarters of the National Party be moved to Nanking.
    On the 22nd of March, the east detachment of the Revolutionary Army under Bai Chongxi entered Shanghai. On the 24th, the middle detachment occupied Nanking. A few members of the Communist Party instigated the soldiers of the Revolutionary Army to rob and kill foreigners in order to incite foreign governments to take action against the national government. But the consuls of England, the United States and Japan had evidence that the Communist Party was responsible for the trouble.
    On the fifth of April, the Central Committee of the National Party divided the Revolutionary Army into two military blocs. Chiang was re-appointed the commander-in-chief of the first military bloc and Feng Yuxiang was the commander-in-chief of the second. On the same day, Chiang contacted the heads of certain mafias in Shanghai and asked them to organize a Shanghai business guild to oppose the Shanghai workers’ general union, an armed group which was controlled by the Communist Party.
    Meantime, Borodin secretly urged General Guo Songling under the warlord government to fight Zhang Zuolin, who had secret contacts with Chiang. On the 6th of April, Zhang suddenly attacked the embassy of the Soviet Union in Peking to arrest 58 members of the Communist Party hiding there, including Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the Communist Party. They found secret documents which proved that the Soviet Union instructed the Communist Party to overthrow the Chinese government. On the 12th of April, Chiang sent the national 26th army to the Shanghai workers’ general union to order them to surrender their weapons. But they refused, and many people were killed in the conflict, which became known as the 4/12 event. Then Chiang ordered all the organizations controlled by the Communist Party to disband.
    On the 17th of April, Chiang and other members of the Central Committee of the National Party met in Nanking to issue warrant for the arrest of 197 leading members of the Communist Party, including Borodin, Chen Duxiu, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969), Zhang Guotao, Deng Yingchao (1904–1992, wife of Zhou Enlai), and others. On the 28th, Li Dazhao and others were hanged in Peking, accused of plotting to overthrow the government.
    On the 20th of April, the Communist Party issued a statement saying that Chiang was the open foe of the revolutionary people and called upon the people to overthrow him. On the 22nd day, Wang Jingwei and other members of the National Party who supported the Communist Party, together with Mao Zedong and some Communist Party members, openly blamed Chiang for the disruption. Chiang founded the national government in Nanking in opposition to the government in Wuhan City.
    On the fifth of June when Indian revolutionary M.N. Roy, a representative of the Communist International, asked Wang Jingwei to allow the Communist Party to control the Wuhan government, Wang began to disband the Communist Party. Therefore, on the 1st of August, the Communist Party called for riots in Nanchang. That marked the final rupture between the National Party and the Communist Party.

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    Chapter 2. The First Civil War Between The National Party and the Communist Party
    Communist Party Riots
    The Riot in Nanchang City
    Wang Jingwei learned that the Soviet Union was planning to help the Communist Party of China to take over power from Wuhan government in July 1927. He expelled all the members of the Communist Party that were in the National Party and the Wuhan government. This led the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Jiujiang City (Jiangxi province) to foment a riot in Nanchang City, where they controlled some of the army. On the 26th of July, Zhou Enlai was sent to organize the riot. Several hours after Zhou left, they got a telegram from the Communist International, instructing them not to start it if there was no chance of winning. So Zhang Guotao was sent after Zhou. When Zhang reached Nanchang, all the preparations were already in place, and besides, most of the representatives refused to take these orders. The 11th army and the 20th army under the command of He Long (1896–1969) had already come to Nanchang from Jiujiang City, and were welcomed by Zhu De (1886–1976), commander of the 9th army and head of the city police.
    At two o’clock in the morning of August 1, 1927, the rebels began to attack the National Revolutionary Army guarding the city. After fighting for four hours, they occupied the city. But the national government gathered more troops to surround Nanchang. The rebellious army had to beat a retreat from the city and went south. On the way, Zhou Enlai, He Long and other leaders deserted their troops and escaped to Hong Kong and Shanghai. Only Zhu De led the rest of the army to Guangdong province. They had to adopt the stratagems of guerrilla warfare. In January of 1928, Zhu De started another riot and led his army to Mt. JingGang in Jiangxi province, where he met Mao Zedong. Their troops formed the Red 4th Army.

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