At thunder and tempest, At the world's coldheartedness,
During times of heavy loss And when you're sad
The greatest art on earth Is to seem uncomplicatedly gay.
To get things clear, they have to firstly be very unclear. But if you get them too quickly, you probably got them wrong.
If you need me urgent, send me a PM
What ideas are expressed in the passage and what do they tell you about the speaker?
What feelings does the speaker express? What does that tell you about them? Are their feelings consistent?
Does the character belong to a particular character type or represent a certain idea, value, quality or attitude?
What is the social status or the character, and how can you tell from how they speak and what they speak about?
What is the sensibility of the speaker? Is the person ironic, witty, alert to the good or attuned to the evil in others?
What is the orientation of the person?
How much control over and awareness of Winston's emotions thought and his language does the speaker have?
How does the narrator characterize the character through comment or through description?
Last edited by Hubert; 10-14-2009 at 06:08 PM.
Can you please describe which characters and passages you're talking about and at least give us your thoughts to show that you've even read the book.
Hi, I am currently working on an essay that is worth 10% of my grade and I was wondering if I could get some comments about the intro paragraph and ideas for the rest of the essay. I need 5 sources from the book and 2 secondary sources (if you guys have any suggestions that would be greatly appreciated).
The novel “1984” by George Orwell is a warning about the dangers of totalitarianism and touches on the different ways how totalitarianism can remove individuality. When one loses their individuality, they can be manipulated into doing anything. In the novel, the government succeeds in doing so through limiting expression, propaganda and restricting all pleasures.
I was thinking for limiting expression I could go in about Newspeak and how it limits creative expression since there are no synonyms and negative words. Also about no need to write so people forget how to write on paper.
For propaganda I was definitely thinking about altering history, the image of Big Brother and Goldstein, the schools where kids go to get brainwashed, and i forgot the latin phrase which means if you repeat the same lie over and over again, it will be true. The quote with thoughtcrime is not a crime, thoughtcrime is death. Oceania was at war with Eurasia but then they start war with Eastasia and the telescreen claims they were always at war with Eastasia.
For restricting pleasures I am thinking of everybody eats the same bad food, live in the same kind of homes? I am not sure about that one, no sexual pleasure, I'm not sure but are all books banned or are they all revised? When the people have no pleasure, they convert to Big Brother for a sense of self and a sense of victory because the telescreen promotes patriotism.
If you have anything to add or some comments and tips that would be greatly appreciated thanks!
I meant people as in the masses, there will always be outliers in society and those are dealt with punishment from the Thoughtpolice. I did think of fear but I didn't quite know where to fit it in, propaganda is already massive and I'm not sure I could make a whole paragraph dedicated to fear other than thoughtcrime is death. I'm not sure what you mean with the question "How many of the Outer Party members named in 1984 end up in Room 101?" If you could elaborate more on that it would be greatly appreciated, thank you for your time!
Last edited by Gladys; 12-30-2009 at 09:52 PM. Reason: typo
From what I get from having read this book multiple times (for pleasure), I feel the only outliers are Winston and Julia. The rest have all been "converted" to The Party. Winston and Julia are the only ones who acted on their impulses to deliberately defy The Party knowing full well the consequences of their actions. The rest although some of them or others not mentioned in the book might be aware of the injustice done upon them by The Party, fear destroys their will to act.Through this fear, their subconscious activates a defense mechanism in which they conform to the authority figure in this case Big Brother or The Party.
Also this is what I have so far, if anybody would like to proof-read and leave some comments; positive or negative, please do so as everybody's opinion is duly noted and much appreciated. Thanks!
The novel “1984” by George Orwell is a warning about the dangers of totalitarianism and touches on the different ways how totalitarianism can remove individuality. When one loses their individuality, they can be manipulated into doing anything. In the novel, the government succeeds in doing so through limiting language, propaganda and restricting all pleasures.
Words are an important aspect to expressing oneself. “The Party” replaced English (Oldspeak) with “Newspeak”; a new form of language. “Newspeak” eliminates synonyms, antonyms, unwanted words and many other ways to reduce the vocabulary. The main purpose of Newspeak is make citizens unable to even think negatively towards the beliefs of The Party. “The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the world-view and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible.” (p.174) This eliminates a huge threat to “The Party” because if one person tries to get others to see the injustice of The Party, they will fail to derive the words necessary from their vocabulary. As a result of reducing the vocabulary, the citizens of Oceania also have trouble communicating their thoughts and opinions to others. As Newspeak enters into one's subconscious, it also reduces the mind's range of thought. “Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought, and this purpose was indirectly assisted by cutting the choice of words down to a minimum.” (p.174) If someone loses their range of thought from being able to express their opinions, they lose a big part of their individuality and as a result, fear and uncertainty come to life. People become scared because they have lost control of the power to express themselves and as a defense mechanism, they look for comfort or answers from an authority figure; Big Brother. “Most of us humans do not deal well with uncertainty. We look to our senior authorities, whether the President, the Governor, the CEO, the Executive Director, or Mom and Dad to create stability and security and clarity for ourselves. That's what we want from authority: direction, protection and order.” (Linksky, 2009)
Here is the full version
The novel “1984” by George Orwell is a warning about the dangers of totalitarianism and touches on the different ways on how totalitarianism can remove individuality and secure total obedience. When one loses their individuality, they can be manipulated into doing anything. In the novel, the government succeeds in doing so through limiting language, propaganda and removing pleasures.
Words are a crucial aspect to expressing oneself. “The Party” replaced English (Oldspeak) with “Newspeak” which is the new form of language. “Newspeak” eliminates synonyms, antonyms, unwanted words and many other ways to reduce the vocabulary. The main purpose of Newspeak is make citizens unable to think negatively towards the beliefs of The Party. “The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the world-view and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible.” (p.174) This eliminates an enormous threat to “The Party” because if one person tries to get others to see the injustice of The Party, they will fail to derive the words necessary from their vocabulary. As a result of reducing the vocabulary, the citizens of Oceania also have difficulty communicating their thoughts and opinions to others. As Newspeak enters into one's subconscious, it also lessens the mind's range of thought. “Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought, and this purpose was indirectly assisted by cutting the choice of words down to a minimum.” (p.174) If someone loses their range of thought from being able to express their opinions, they lose a substantial part of their individuality and as a result, fear and uncertainty come to life. People become scared because they have lost control of the power to express themselves and as a defense mechanism, they look for comfort from an authority figure which in this case is Big Brother. “Most of us humans do not deal well with uncertainty. We look to our senior authorities, whether the President, the Governor, the CEO, the Executive Director, or Mom and Dad to create stability and security and clarity for ourselves. That's what we want from authority: direction, protection and order.” (Linksky, 2009)
Propaganda is “the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person”. (Merriam-Webster 2009) Propaganda in the novel 1984 removes individuality by manipulating people into the same mindset. Their goal is to serve The Party and Big Brother. “The Party” uses many ways of spreading propaganda such as altering history, the “doublethink” technique, Big Brother, Emmanuel Goldstein, and “early conditioning” of children. Altering history and “doublethink” go hand in hand, but in order to alter history and have objections, doublethink must be implemented first. Doublethink is “the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them”. (p.124) It is a mental technique that allows all Party members to believe what is needed and forget what is not, but being able to remember what they have forgotten when needed. An example of this in the novel is Winston's (the protagonist) job. He must edit public records in favor to The Party and also believe in what he had altered without question. Once people have learned doublethink, The Party starts to alter history to suit what is best in their interests without question. The Party's slogan about controlling the past explains why. “Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.”(p.154) An example that shows the result of doublethink and altering history is when Winston recalls “The Party said that Oceania had never been in alliance with Eurasia. He, Winston Smith, knew that Oceania had been in alliance with Eurasia as short a time as four years ago. But where did that knowledge exist? Only in his own consciousness, which in any case must soon be annihilated. And if all others accepted the lie which the Party imposed -if all records told the same tale — then the lie passed into history and became truth.” (p.20) Another example is one of Winston's observations. “It appeared that there had even been
demonstrations to thank Big Brother for raising the chocolate ration to twenty grammes a week. And only yesterday, he reflected, it had been announced that the ration was to be reduced to twenty grammes a week. Was it possible that they could swallow that, after only twenty-four hours? Yes, they swallowed it.” (p.32) Most of the people who do not conform to these methods are subjected to Argumentum ad populum. “A proposition is held to be true because it is widely held to be true or is held to be true by some (usually superior) sector of the population.” (p. 103, Copi and Cohen, 90) Symbolism is also used in propaganda. “Big Brother” is the face of The Party. Winston describes him as “an invincible, fearless protector, standing like a rock against the hordes of Asia”. (p.9) On the other hand, Emmanuel Goldstein is the enemy and the “Two Minute Hate” is dedicated to him. It is very black and white; Big Brother is their best friend and Emmanuel Goldstein is their worst enemy. There is no thinking required to determine who is bad and who is good, no gray areas, which is exactly what The Party wants. The final technique The Party uses to spread propaganda is to plant the seed at an early age. The children would even go as far as betraying their own parents to the Thought Police. “It was almost normal for people over thirty to be frightened of their own children. And with good reason, for hardly a week passed in which The Times did not carry a paragraph describing how some eavesdropping little sneak — ’child hero’ was the phrase generally used — had overheard some compromising remark and denounced its parents to the Thought Police.” (p.14) The Party targets young children because children are easily influenced and when they grow older it feel natural to obey The Party. (Optional Proverbs 22:6 from the bible)
Even after restricting language, spreading fear and propaganda, The Party also removes pleasures such as sex, food, clothing and books for total control. “All competing pleasures will be destroyed.” (p.154) Winston narrates, “In any time that he could accurately remember, there had never been quite enough to eat, one had never had socks or underclothes that were not full of holes, furniture had always been battered and rickety, rooms underheated, tube trains crowded, houses falling to pieces, bread dark-coloured, tea a rarity, coffee filthy-tasting, cigarettes insufficient — nothing cheap and plentiful except synthetic gin.” (p.34) The plan is to make sure everything is mediocre. As a result, almost no pleasure can be obtained from anything. For example, during work all party members must wear their blue uniforms and if everyone is wearing the same ragged clothes, nobody will get compliments. People in modern society are subject to consumerism and one main reason is so they can show off to their peers and fish for compliments. The Party's reasoning of why everything is the same is compliments make people feel good therefore nobody should feel the satisfaction and pleasure of receiving one. Books that provide thought and reflection provide pleasure for readers because they can explore other times or places. If everybody read about a place where hard workers receive better housing and food, they might start to question The Party and demand change. In the words of Sir Francis Bacon “Knowledge is power.” However, not all books are banned; the ones approved and edited by The Party can be read. Since one of the goals of The Party is to remove the use of imagination and thinking, approved books would not provide much pleasure. Finally The Party tries to remove sexual pleasure because it creates a conflict of interest because the two lovers might develop emotional ties with each other thus distributing the love for Big Brother and The Party. “The sex instinct will be eradicated. Procreation will be an annual formality like the renewal of a ration card. We shall abolish the orgasm. Our neurologists are at work upon it now. There will be no loyalty, except loyalty towards the Party. There will be no love, except the love of Big Brother.” (p.154) As a result of eliminating all pleasure, the people turn to Big Brother for help. That's why The Party keeps one defining pleasure that only Big Brother can provide: the feeling of power and victory. “But always — do not forget this, Winston — always there will be the intoxication of power, constantly increasing and constantly growing subtler. Always, at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless.” (p.156) This dismisses all individual pleasures and manipulates people to welcome and encourage Big Brother (totalitarianism).
Language is a key aspect to expressing oneself, therefore a smaller vocabulary leads to difficulty in communication. Propaganda is a great way of manipulating opinions and the absence of pleasure leads to frustration. The Party combines all their knowledge of the human mind and mentally bombards every single member of the party by influencing them at a young age, implementing a new language without synonyms and antonyms, the “doublethink” technique, a black and white society, achieving equally through administering mediocre possessions and eradicating all competing pleasures of power. In the end, the main purpose of applying mental warfare is to eliminate all possible threats of resistance against The Party. George Orwell creates a searing image depicting how totalitarianism can rule with an iron fist. However he leaves us with the insightful analysis that in order for this to occur, the government must first attack the minds of the masses by removing all defining characteristics of each person's individuality.
Are the rest of the Outer Party 'converted'? Fear obviously inhibits any member from showing even a hint of defiance, and Orwell only gives us insight into the mindset of the small circle around Winston. Surely these few members are representative of the other six million. And only a minority resemble compliant and stupid Parsons in adoring the totalitarian regime.
Winston acts to defy the party because he is representative of a large, but shrinking, remnant who remember life before INGSOC. Significantly Winston is a dreamer and a fool because resistance is useless. Julia, and all her pragmatic peers, well understand that the Party is now invulnerable. They do what they can to make life more bearable with no thought of outright rebellion.
If Winston and Julia were "the only ones who acted on their impulses to deliberately defy The Party" and all others compliant zombies, then 1984 would be much less than the thoroughly grim book it is. The politics of 1984 are poison.
I need help with writing the outline for my literary criticism paper on 1984. I really just need an example so I can see how it should look. I had found one I wanted to use when I was doing my thesis statement but I don't know where it is anymore.
The theme I am working on is the government taking away the life of the citizens' through the use of psychological and physical torture, constantly changing past and present information, and narrowing the language with newspeak and the concept of doublethink. I'm not even sure which order these should go in.
I actually like and hate this book because it makes me think so much to the point where I overthink the whole thing so I really want to do good on this. I had a similar problem with my thesis statement.
Any help will be greatly appreciated.
i have to write an essay and its due tomorrow.Orwell seemed to predicted some developement correctly, but seemed to miss the mark on other developments in history and science. What did he foresee correctly? What did he foresee incorrectly?
Check the other thread - I hope I've given you a couple of pointers.
Go to work, get married, have some kids, pay your taxes, pay your bills, watch your tv, follow fashion, act normal, obey the law and repeat after me: "I am free."
This thread looks like t hasn't been posted on in a while but I have a question.
I know that many of the places in 1984 correspond to actual places in London and I was wondering if Victory Square corresponds to an actual square in London?