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Aesthetics in Music

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Indian Aesthetics -The Personal and Impersonal
Dr Suvarna Nalapat

The English word language comes from Latin lingua and from the Sanskrit root linga which means the sign ,the toungue and the male generative organ.It denotes any means of expression/revelation or communication of thoughts and feelings.Therefore ,the Sanskrit word for language is Bhaasha ,from the root Bha ,to shine,to express or reveal.Bha is always related to light,so that it is something with a form (roopa)and hence perceivable(darshana)and enjoyable.The heard(sruthy-veda and music)is thus not separate from the darshana or light(the visualized.)What is visualized in the mind of the Rishi(Pashyanthy)comes out as the heard(language,music)so that the listener also get the same images or visions of the rishi.The bhaasha or language are of three classes
.1.The sound(dwani,shruthi,naada)
2.The sign(mudra)
3.The word.(Vaak or varna)
The sound originate from instinct and develop into art of music and consists of inarticulate sounds(termed notes in music)which proceed through vocal chords.The sign originate both from instinct and reason and consists of gestures of the body.The word is based on reason,consists of spoken and written words which require palate,toungue ,teeth,lips and nose .Thus ,in India ,in ancient Tamil speaking territories the development of isai(music),iyal(literature)and naatakam(drama) in the thinking,reasoning,feeling,enjoying and communicating brains of our ancestors happened simultaneously..Natyasasthra of Bharathamuni gives a beautiful description of how it developed as the vrithy(Bharathy,saathwathy,kaisiki and Aarabhaty )from the dance and wars of Vishnu.Since it originated from the lawfull gathi(niyathagathivishesha)of Vishnu they are called Nyaaya.Bharathamuni (1)says he is using this natyaveda for his poetic works also.He received Bharathy from Rigveda,sathwathy from yajurveda,kaisiki from saamaveda and Aarabhaty from Atharvaveda.The rasa for sathwathy are veera,adbhudha and roudra.(no sringara or karuna )Aarabhaty also has rasa like krodha,vega and characters of kapata,vanchana,dambha,anritha etc.(since it is in war).Bharathy is prose .Hence all the three are not used by the Indian classical music.And according to Bharatha these were created out of Vishnu in male form.But kaisiki was created in vishnuís activity as a woman(mohini)and it is in this we find women participating with beautiful dresses ,dance,music,drama and feelings of eros and agape.In the saivist traditions also this developed from the face of Girija while the others developed from the faces of Shiva. The king of the rasa is sringaara and it is predominantly seen in kaisiki and is the main ingredient of the Indian aesthetics and aesthetical theories. There are four anga for kaisiki related to the different rasa..
1.Narma.
Aasthaapithasringaaram
Visudhakaranam nivrithaveerarasam
Hasyaparavachanabahulam
Narmathrividam vijaaneeyaath
The prominent rasa is sringara and is pure dance without veerarasa,but with sense of humour.This is of three types.Vipralambasringara or love in separation can turn to anger,to criticize,and also to attract.These are the three types of narma in sringara.
2.narmaspunja.
Nvasamgamasambhogo
Rathysamudayaveshavakyasamyuktha
Gneyo narmaspunjo
Hyavasaanabhayaathmakaschaiva

There is fully developed and expressed emotion of eros,and the dresses and bhava of the hero and heroine is attuned to that emotion and there is the first unin with pleasure and then followed by fear of being known to others or of separation.
3.Narmasphotam
vividhaanaam bhaavaanaam
lavairlavair bhoo****hobhahuvisheshai
asamagrakshiptharaso
narmasphotasthu vigneya
All the different bhavas are present in different proportions ,but the rasapoorthy or final union does not happen.
4.Narmagarbha
vignaanaroopasobhaa
dhanaadhirbhi naayako gunairyathra
praschannam vyavaharathe
kaaryavasaannarmagarbhosow.
The hero is uthamapurusha excellant in knowledge,beauty,wealth and all the qualities,but he is hiding these qualities due to some reason from the beloved and the rasa is uthamasringara itself .The love in disguise is narmagarbha.
In short,sense of humour,eros or sringara ,are in kaisiki,veera and adbhudha in sathwathy,roudra and bhayanaka in aarabhaty and karuna and bheebatsa in bharathy.
Since music is predominantly kaisiki and partially sathwathy(veera and adbhutha)and partially bharathy(karuna)but never aarabhaty we can assess the rasa or aesthetics associated with classical music from this description.

From sound language arise prose and poetry.In vocal music this consists of the melodic prose part (raga alaapana )and in vocal conversation the natural musical tones peculiar to certain languages.Poetry of sound language is either artistic or artificial.This include melody,harmony expressing external emotions,harmony expressing internal emotions.The sign language also has prose and poetry in it.The prose part of sign language is gestures in conversation,lipreading,manual alphabet,signals used in railway,road,military and naval departments etc.The poetry part is the artistic mudra or gestures used in Indian dance,and artificial are the ones used in physical drill,in organized games and also in European dance.
The word language has a prose part of noisy day to day conversation ,and novels and other critical prose in literature(Scott and kadambari given as examples).It has a poetry part or kaavya (kaalidaasa and Shakespeare given as examples)(2)

From the abovesaid facts ,it is clear that to communicate the aesthetics of the art of classical music certain prerequisites are needed.The aesthetics of the music and information theory(3) or communication theory (which term I prefer)since music is not mere information gathering but communication between the artist and the rasika for enjoyment of rasa.The information value of any symbol,sign and its meaning can be either as aesthetic information or communication(artistic)or as scientific nonaesthetic information.The criteria for aesthetic communication of music are
1.the originality of the music
2.the optimal extent to which people are attracted to the performer and the performance determined by the crowd and by the time (in years)he or she can sustain the attractive effect on the society.(whether momentary or longstanding)
3.whether the people are enthralled by it.
4.What types of rasika are attracted.whether all the types of rasika ar e among his/her followers.Lifelong fans who admire,critics(samaalochak)who evaluate ,criticize,grades and appreciates the performance as well as the performer,and think for the singer and improve the singing.Daarsanika(visionaries)concerned with defining the notion of musical experience,his(listenerís) or her position in it,and the identity as an eternal listener to an eternal singer (metaphysically to God).The daarsanika understand and experience the ecstacy at a yogic level.It stimulates the others including the singer.(4 and 5)
The function of the message or communication from music are different in different individuals
1.Transmitting a new mental image (innovative)
2.integrating the new mental images with already existing ones
3.systematizing the mental images
4.characterizing them so that they obtain a very high degree of specificity for the listener.
For this innovation,integration,systematization and characterization to happen ,the singer has to have a sustaining effect on society and the listeners should have listened to him/her for a long period and thought about and enjoyed his/her music and studied it analytically.That is,saadhana and experience are required for the total aesthetic experience to bloom not only from the side of the singer but also from the listener.That determines the originality,sustained enthrallment and saadhana from the rasika as well and henc e the rasika is not a passive listener but a very active participant totally involved in the singing activity and hence psychologically and physiologically becomes a potential singer or a mute artist(6)Listening to the tonal swara variations ,the rhythmic laya and the form of a particular singerís music the rasika develop a type of mystical rapport with the singer and towards God and that is how Indian music is spiritual than earthly.It goes from the personal to the impersonal level.and vice versa.
The rasa experience depends upon three factors.The listener,the singer and the inherent properties of the music itself.There are a few excellencies and defects (qualities and faults)described for the voice of a singer ,for the singing style and for the singer as a person in Indian music.(7) which are important for getting the optimum aesthetic bliss.
The excellances are the aesthetic subsets which increase the rasa experience and the defects decrease rasa.
There are 22 excellances in the performance of a singer which makes him/her the best among singers since he/she gives the most aananda(rasa or aesthetic experience)to the listeners whether informed or uninformed.
The aesthetic subsets of the best singer
1.attractive voice and good tonal quality
2.adept in initiating and finishing a raga
3.wellversed in singing raga,raagaanga,bhaashaanga,kriyaanga and upaanga
4.expert in singing prabhandha
5.knows different forms of aalaapana(aalaapthy)
6.commands natural access to shakes and graces(gamaka)arising from all the three registers
7.selfcontrolled voice
8.aware of musical time(thaala)
9.attentive(shradha)
10.indefatiguable
11.knows shudha and chaayalaga compositions
12.expert in all intonations
13.commands movements of different sthaayaas
14.who is free of all blemishes
15.whois given to regular saadhana or exercises
16.mindful of tempo(laya)
17.versatile personality
18who is retentive
19. holds praana while singing with great passion
20.who is capable of arresting the attention of the audience
21/who belongs to a good tradition of guruparampara
22.who excels in the exposition of the raga
A mrishta,madhura,trishaanaka ,sukhavaahaka prachura,komala ,and strong voice,sraavaka and karuna,snigda,Ghana ,slakshna or continuous like a vertical flow of oil (without discontinuity)and creating enjoyment and interest and love(rakthimaan)in listeners faultless and bright(chavimaan)is a Godgiven gift to a singer and this suswara is considered the most important quality of a good singer by Vishnu himself,as he tells Naarada (8)

The aesthetic subset for a good listener are

1.pure with unruffled senses(sudha,indriyanigraha)
2.expert in discussing the pros and cons(oohaapohavishaarada)
3.faultless(tyakthadosha)
4.lover of music(anuraagi or better to call raagaanuraagi)
5.Capable of rasaanubhava or aesthetic experience(bhaavaanukarane alankritha)
6.impartial
7.attentive(saavadhaana)
8.good speaker(vaagmi)
9.logical(nyaayavaadi)
10.aware of wrong and right(trutithaathrutithaabhigna)
11.humble(vinaya)
12.prideless(agarva)
13aesthetically sensible(rasabhaavagna)
14.proficient in music and dance(tauryatritaabhigna)
15.One who refutes false stand boldly(asadvaadanishedha)
16 expert(chathura)
17.with no envy(amaatsaryachith)
18intensely sensitive heart(Amanda rasanishyandhi hridaya)

The artistís creative urge and the listenerís appreciative urge should thus match perfectly and only then the communication is perfect and the aesthetic experience total.It has to follow a behavioural analysis of a artist as well as a involved listener (both are essentially artistic but combine a scientific turn of mind as evaluation and analysis concerened)The conceptual framework for analysis of aesthetic behaviour(9) (behaviour analysis)involves the nature and form of aesthetic behaviour,nature of aesthetic response ,nature of aesthetic stimulus,the artist and the listener as a person .And such study is very very rare since devoted and involved listeners are also becoming a rare commodity. .My attempt to study my musical consciousness as a listener and the effect of two of the greatest singers of my times(M.S.subbulakshmy and K.J.Jesudas)on me and on society happened quite naturally and as my musical life panorama,yet it is scientific, since anyone can assess by hearing the music of the singers mentioned whether I am right,and they can also by assessing my aesthetic musical personality and behaviour see whether I have the qualities of a good listener mentioned.Thus the research on aesthetic of music becomes a behavioural analysis also. Apart from the listener and the musician there is the third factor ,the music and its intricacies itself.This part I am not entering into in the present context,since it is too exhaustive to cover here.And,as an uninformed listener,and an advaithin interested in spirituality and brahma experience ,,since rasa and Brahma experience are twins and are alike ,I would like to concentrate on the naadalayayogi and the yogic experience of samadhi akin to rasaanubhava.Rasa is chamathkaar(transcendental emotional experience of bliss or pleasure and hence is aloukika(not of this world)according to Indian aesthetics but experienced by the people on earth(loukika).The raga has a form ,a form of a divine beauty (raagdevatha)associated with a rithu(season)and the scheme of the musical notes and the lyrics and the music give the expression of an experience related to it.The musical notes as such have no independent existence unless it conveys the embodied form ,personified to evoke a rasa.This Raagdevathadhyaana is exactly like the devathaadhyaana of the thanthric or of the dhyaana of prakrithy by the poets .Rasa is parellel to the theory of Sankara in this way.That is it does not exist in its pure form (like pure satwa,pure rajas,pure thamas)but as a mixture of the thriguna in this world.This is accepted by all arts and sciences of India including Ayurveda.The predominence of one of the guna gives a name of that guna.If sathwa predominates we call saathwik and if rajas predominates rajasic and like that.Brahmaananda with satwodreka(increase and predominance of satwa)is the ultimate aim of a spiritualist.Rasa or aesthetic bliss being akin to it is sathwik in character.The satwa guna is predominant in Vishnu . and as mentioned in Bharathamuniís Natyasasthra Kaisiki is taken from Saamaveda (music)and In Bhagavad Gita also Krishna says among the vedaís I am saamaveda,denoting his preference for the satwika musical spirituality of the saama singers.That gives prasaada(bliss)and niraamaya(health forever)for the bhaktha(singer and listener both being devotees of God)and Thanmayatha in God who is Love incarnate.
The fact that raaga has a roop(form) the beauty of which one can see or perceive(darshana vision)and enjoy with your own eye(internal/external)has given rise to the science of soundarya(beauty with proportionate anga or parts ) and lavanya (charming personality) or maadhurya(.animated sweet personality)This beauty has a lustrous shine like that of a pure pearl of high quality according to Roop Goswamy and produce rasa experience in the perceiver(10)The rasa come from the bhaava (emotional state)in a sensitive personís mind (sahridaya)for which aesthetic propensity(vaasana)is essential with previous impressions(sanskarra)which may be of this birth or of previous births is the Indian concept.Therefore,the ability to be a good singer and a good listener and partake in rasa experience is a divine gift carried over due to previous births and its relations.
Right from the Nadabindhu Upanishad and times of the veda the role of the sound and manthra and music in yoga and in awakening the kundalini power in the human body had been discussed in detail(ch 8,9 and 10 Without a stumble A book on spirituality of music .Dr suvarna Nalapat. 2003.)(11)(12)

According to Indian aesthetics and yoga psychology the body of all beings including that of the singer and listener is following the same rule of the cosmos and this golden rule makes it possible for us to become one with the divine experience and since music is the nearest which follows the golden rule of aesthetics it is natural for us to become one with God through the music.Hence ,the structure of the chakra(sreechakra,sudarsanachakra,sangheethachakra )and its form and property and the meditation on it has been an ageold practice to attain rasa experience of God. The personal and impersonal,the jeevathma and paramathma,the bhaktha and bhagavaan become one creating an advaitha
The excellances are the aesthetic subsets which increase the rasa experience and the defects decrease rasa.
There are 22 excellances in the performance of a singer which makes him/her the best among singers since he/she gives the most aananda(rasa or aesthetic experience)to the listeners whether informed or uninformed.
The aesthetic subsets of the best singer
1.attractive voice and good tonal quality
2.adept in initiating and finishing a raga
3.wellversed in singing raga,raagaanga,bhaashaanga,kriyaanga and upaanga
4.expert in singing prabhandha
5.knows different forms of aalaapana(aalaapthy)
6.commands natural access to shakes and graces(gamaka)arising from all the three registers
7.selfcontrolled voice
8.aware of musical time(thaala)
9.attentive(shradha)
10.indefatiguable
11.knows shudha and chaayalaga compositions
12.expert in all intonations
13.commands movements of different sthaayaas
14.who is free of all blemishes
15.whois given to regular saadhana or exercises
16.mindful of tempo(laya)
17.versatile personality
18who is retentive
19. holds praana while singing with great passion
20.who is capable of arresting the attention of the audience
21/who belongs to a good tradition of guruparampara
22.who excels in the exposition of the raga
A mrishta,madhura,trishaanaka ,sukhavaahaka prachura,komala ,and strong voice,sraavaka and karuna,snigda,Ghana ,slakshna or continuous like a vertical flow of oil (without discontinuity)and creating enjoyment and interest and love(rakthimaan)in listeners faultless and bright(chavimaan)is a Godgiven gift to a singer and this suswara is considered the most important quality of a good singer by Vishnu himself,as he tells Naarada (8)

The aesthetic subset for a good listener are

1.pure with unruffled senses(sudha,indriyanigraha)
2.expert in discussing the pros and cons(oohaapohavishaarada)
3.faultless(tyakthadosha)
4.lover of music(anuraagi or better to call raagaanuraagi)
5.Capable of rasaanubhava or aesthetic experience(bhaavaanukarane alankritha)
6.impartial
7.attentive(saavadhaana)
8.good speaker(vaagmi)
9.logical(nyaayavaadi)
10.aware of wrong and right(trutithaathrutithaabhigna)
11.humble(vinaya)
12.prideless(agarva)
13aesthetically sensible(rasabhaavagna)
14.proficient in music and dance(tauryatritaabhigna)
15.One who refutes false stand boldly(asadvaadanishedha)
16 expert(chathura)
17.with no envy(amaatsaryachith)
18intensely sensitive heart(Amanda rasanishyandhi hridaya)

The artistís creative urge and the listenerís appreciative urge should thus match perfectly and only then the communication is perfect and the aesthetic experience total.It has to follow a behavioural analysis of a artist as well as a involved listener (both are essentially artistic but combine a scientific turn of mind as evaluation and analysis concerened)The conceptual framework for analysis of aesthetic behaviour(9) (behaviour analysis)involves the nature and form of aesthetic behaviour,nature of aesthetic response ,nature of aesthetic stimulus,the artist and the listener as a person .And such study is very very rare since devoted and involved listeners are also becoming a rare commodity. .My attempt to study my musical consciousness as a listener and the effect of two of the greatest singers of my times(M.S.subbulakshmy and K.J.Jesudas)on me and on society happened quite naturally and as my musical life panorama,yet it is scientific, since anyone can assess by hearing the music of the singers mentioned whether I am right,and they can also by assessing my aesthetic musical personality and behaviour see whether I have the qualities of a good listener mentioned.Thus the research on aesthetic of music becomes a behavioural analysis also. Apart from the listener and the musician there is the third factor ,the music and its intricacies itself.This part I am not entering into in the present context,since it is too exhaustive to cover here.And,as an uninformed listener,and an advaithin interested in spirituality and brahma experience ,,since rasa and Brahma experience are twins and are alike ,I would like to concentrate on the naadalayayogi and the yogic experience of samadhi akin to rasaanubhava.Rasa is chamathkaar(transcendental emotional experience of bliss or pleasure and hence is aloukika(not of this world)according to Indian aesthetics but experienced by the people on earth(loukika).The raga has a form ,a form of a divine beauty (raagdevatha)associated with a rithu(season)and the scheme of the musical notes and the lyrics and the music give the expression of an experience related to it.The musical notes as such have no independent existence unless it conveys the embodied form ,personified to evoke a rasa.This Raagdevathadhyaana is exactly like the devathaadhyaana of the thanthric or of the dhyaana of prakrithy by the poets .Rasa is parellel to the theory of Sankara in this way.That is it does not exist in its pure form (like pure satwa,pure rajas,pure thamas)but as a mixture of the thriguna in this world.This is accepted by all arts and sciences of India including Ayurveda.The predominence of one of the guna gives a name of that guna.If sathwa predominates we call saathwik and if rajas predominates rajasic and like that.Brahmaananda with satwodreka(increase and predominance of satwa)is the ultimate aim of a spiritualist.Rasa or aesthetic bliss being akin to it is sathwik in character.The satwa guna is predominant in Vishnu . and as mentioned in Bharathamuniís Natyasasthra Kaisiki is taken from Saamaveda (music)and In Bhagavad Gita also Krishna says among the vedaís I am saamaveda,denoting his preference for the satwika musical spirituality of the saama singers.That gives prasaada(bliss)and niraamaya(health forever)for the bhaktha(singer and listener both being devotees of God)and Thanmayatha in God who is Love incarnate.
The fact that raaga has a roop(form) the beauty of which one can see or perceive(darshana vision)and enjoy with your own eye(internal/external)has given rise to the science of soundarya(beauty with proportionate anga or parts ) and lavanya (charming personality) or maadhurya(.animated sweet personality)This beauty has a lustrous shine like that of a pure pearl of high quality according to Roop Goswamy and produce rasa experience in the perceiver(10)The rasa come from the bhaava (emotional state)in a sensitive personís mind (sahridaya)for which aesthetic propensity(vaasana)is essential with previous impressions(sanskarra)which may be of this birth or of previous births is the Indian concept.Therefore,the ability to be a good singer and a good listener and partake in rasa experience is a divine gift carried over due to previous births and its relations.
Right from the Nadabindhu Upanishad and times of the veda the role of the sound and manthra and music in yoga and in awakening the kundalini power in the human body had been discussed in detail(ch 8,9 and 10 Without a stumble A book on spirituality of music .Dr suvarna Nalapat. 2003.)(11)(12)

According to Indian aesthetics and yoga psychology the body of all beings including that of the singer and listener is following the same rule of the cosmos and this golden rule makes it possible for us to become one with the divine experience and since music is the nearest which follows the golden rule of aesthetics it is natural for us to become one with God through the music.Hence ,the structure of the chakra(sreechakra,sudarsanachakra,sangheethachakra )and its form and property and the meditation on it has been an ageold practice to attain rasa experience of God. The personal and impersonal,the jeevathma and paramathma,the bhaktha and bhagavaan become one creating an advaitha

The excellances are the aesthetic subsets which increase the rasa experience and the defects decrease rasa.
There are 22 excellances in the performance of a singer which makes him/her the best among singers since he/she gives the most aananda(rasa or aesthetic experience)to the listeners whether informed or uninformed.
The aesthetic subsets of the best singer
1.attractive voice and good tonal quality
2.adept in initiating and finishing a raga
3.wellversed in singing raga,raagaanga,bhaashaanga,kriyaanga and upaanga
4.expert in singing prabhandha
5.knows different forms of aalaapana(aalaapthy)
6.commands natural access to shakes and graces(gamaka)arising from all the three registers
7.selfcontrolled voice
8.aware of musical time(thaala)
9.attentive(shradha)
10.indefatiguable
11.knows shudha and chaayalaga compositions
12.expert in all intonations
13.commands movements of different sthaayaas
14.who is free of all blemishes
15.whois given to regular saadhana or exercises
16.mindful of tempo(laya)
17.versatile personality
18who is retentive
19. holds praana while singing with great passion
20.who is capable of arresting the attention of the audience
21/who belongs to a good tradition of guruparampara
22.who excels in the exposition of the raga
A mrishta,madhura,trishaanaka ,sukhavaahaka prachura,komala ,and strong voice,sraavaka and karuna,snigda,Ghana ,slakshna or continuous like a vertical flow of oil (without discontinuity)and creating enjoyment and interest and love(rakthimaan)in listeners faultless and bright(chavimaan)is a Godgiven gift to a singer and this suswara is considered the most important quality of a good singer by Vishnu himself,as he tells Naarada (8)

The aesthetic subset for a good listener are

1.pure with unruffled senses(sudha,indriyanigraha)
2.expert in discussing the pros and cons(oohaapohavishaarada)
3.faultless(tyakthadosha)
4.lover of music(anuraagi or better to call raagaanuraagi)
5.Capable of rasaanubhava or aesthetic experience(bhaavaanukarane alankritha)
6.impartial
7.attentive(saavadhaana)
8.good speaker(vaagmi)
9.logical(nyaayavaadi)
10.aware of wrong and right(trutithaathrutithaabhigna)
11.humble(vinaya)
12.prideless(agarva)
13aesthetically sensible(rasabhaavagna)
14.proficient in music and dance(tauryatritaabhigna)
15.One who refutes false stand boldly(asadvaadanishedha)
16 expert(chathura)
17.with no envy(amaatsaryachith)
18intensely sensitive heart(Amanda rasanishyandhi hridaya)

The artistís creative urge and the listenerís appreciative urge should thus match perfectly and only then the communication is perfect and the aesthetic experience total.It has to follow a behavioural analysis of a artist as well as a involved listener (both are essentially artistic but combine a scientific turn of mind as evaluation and analysis concerened)The conceptual framework for analysis of aesthetic behaviour(9) (behaviour analysis)involves the nature and form of aesthetic behaviour,nature of aesthetic response ,nature of aesthetic stimulus,the artist and the listener as a person .And such study is very very rare since devoted and involved listeners are also becoming a rare commodity. .My attempt to study my musical consciousness as a listener and the effect of two of the greatest singers of my times(M.S.subbulakshmy and K.J.Jesudas)on me and on society happened quite naturally and as my musical life panorama,yet it is scientific, since anyone can assess by hearing the music of the singers mentioned whether I am right,and they can also by assessing my aesthetic musical personality and behaviour see whether I have the qualities of a good listener mentioned.Thus the research on aesthetic of music becomes a behavioural analysis also. Apart from the listener and the musician there is the third factor ,the music and its intricacies itself.This part I am not entering into in the present context,since it is too exhaustive to cover here.And,as an uninformed listener,and an advaithin interested in spirituality and brahma experience ,,since rasa and Brahma experience are twins and are alike ,I would like to concentrate on the naadalayayogi and the yogic experience of samadhi akin to rasaanubhava.Rasa is chamathkaar(transcendental emotional experience of bliss or pleasure and hence is aloukika(not of this world)according to Indian aesthetics but experienced by the people on earth(loukika).The raga has a form ,a form of a divine beauty (raagdevatha)associated with a rithu(season)and the scheme of the musical notes and the lyrics and the music give the expression of an experience related to it.The musical notes as such have no independent existence unless it conveys the embodied form ,personified to evoke a rasa.This Raagdevathadhyaana is exactly like the devathaadhyaana of the thanthric or of the dhyaana of prakrithy by the poets .Rasa is parellel to the theory of Sankara in this way.That is it does not exist in its pure form (like pure satwa,pure rajas,pure thamas)but as a mixture of the thriguna in this world.This is accepted by all arts and sciences of India including Ayurveda.The predominence of one of the guna gives a name of that guna.If sathwa predominates we call saathwik and if rajas predominates rajasic and like that.Brahmaananda with satwodreka(increase and predominance of satwa)is the ultimate aim of a spiritualist.Rasa or aesthetic bliss being akin to it is sathwik in character.The satwa guna is predominant in Vishnu . and as mentioned in Bharathamuniís Natyasasthra Kaisiki is taken from Saamaveda (music)and In Bhagavad Gita also Krishna says among the vedaís I am saamaveda,denoting his preference for the satwika musical spirituality of the saama singers.That gives prasaada(bliss)and niraamaya(health forever)for the bhaktha(singer and listener both being devotees of God)and Thanmayatha in God who is Love incarnate.
The fact that raaga has a roop(form) the beauty of which one can see or perceive(darshana vision)and enjoy with your own eye(internal/external)has given rise to the science of soundarya(beauty with proportionate anga or parts ) and lavanya (charming personality) or maadhurya(.animated sweet personality)This beauty has a lustrous shine like that of a pure pearl of high quality according to Roop Goswamy and produce rasa experience in the perceiver(10)The rasa come from the bhaava (emotional state)in a sensitive personís mind (sahridaya)for which aesthetic propensity(vaasana)is essential with previous impressions(sanskarra)which may be of this birth or of previous births is the Indian concept.Therefore,the ability to be a good singer and a good listener and partake in rasa experience is a divine gift carried over due to previous births and its relations.
Right from the Nadabindhu Upanishad and times of the veda the role of the sound and manthra and music in yoga and in awakening the kundalini power in the human body had been discussed in detail(ch 8,9 and 10 Without a stumble A book on spirituality of music .Dr suvarna Nalapat. 2003.)(11)(12)

According to Indian aesthetics and yoga psychology the body of all beings including that of the singer and listener is following the same rule of the cosmos and this golden rule makes it possible for us to become one with the divine experience and since music is the nearest which follows the golden rule of aesthetics it is natural for us to become one with God through the music.Hence ,the structure of the chakra(sreechakra,sudarsanachakra,sangheethachakra )and its form and property and the meditation on it has been an ageold practice to attain rasa experience of God. The personal and impersonal,the jeevathma and paramathma,the bhaktha and bhagavaan become one creating an advaitha
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Comments

  1. earthboar's Avatar
    That's a mouthful, but overall pretty informative. I like your etymology of the English words to their Sanskrit roots. Not enough people are aware of the transcontinental descent of the Romantic languages.

    Reading Hindi-to-English can become tedious, because the multisyllable words concatenate to form even more complicated tongue twisters. What is useful about posts like yours is that as India and the Western World grow closer together, by way of electronic communication and commerce, we will need to expose ourselves to the writing and thinking of each other.

    So, in summary, while your post may be a difficult read, it is nonetheless beneficial and interesting. Who says we have to digest a single post in one sitting?
  2. suvarna nalapat's Avatar
    Thank you very much for the nice comment
    suvarna nalapat